File Name: meaning of guidance and counseling .zip
Guidance and counseling: processes, methods and activities in a Lifelong perspective. As a consequence of spreading policies related to the idea that learning throughout life is the heartbeat of society, the need to build and improve national lifelong guidance systems, able to sustain the individual choice to undertake a lifelong process of learning, became clear. This paper deals with the concepts of guidance and counseling in order to present, compare and contrast processes, methods and activities carried out in Hungary, India, Italy and Portugal.
- Guidance and counseling: processes, methods and activities in a Lifelong perspective
- School counselor
- CONCEPT, DEFINITION AND ACTIVITIES OF CAREER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences.
Guidance and counseling: processes, methods and activities in a Lifelong perspective
School counselors help to make learning a positive experience for every student. They are sensitive to individual differences. They know that a classroom environment that is good for one child is not necessarily good for another.
Counselors facilitate communication among teachers, parents, administrators, and students to adapt the school's environment in the best interests of each individual student. They help individual students make the most of their school experiences and prepare them for the future. The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle.
There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, written by Tomaso Garzoni. Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.
The factors leading to the development of guidance and counseling in the United States began in the s with the social reform movement.
The difficulties of people living in urban slums and the widespread use of child labor outraged many. One of the consequences was the compulsory education movement and shortly thereafter the vocational guidance movement, which, in its early days, was concerned with guiding people into the workforce to become productive members of society.
The social and political reformer Frank Parsons is often credited with being the father of the vocational guidance movement. In the Boston Vocation Bureau helped outline a system of vocational guidance in the Boston public schools.
The work of the bureau influenced the need for and the use of vocational guidance both in the United States and other countries. By there were documented accounts of the bureau's influence as far away as Uruguay and China.
Guidance and counseling in these early years were considered to be mostly vocational in nature, but as the profession advanced other personal concerns became part of the school counselor's agenda. The United States' entry into World War I brought the need for assessment of large groups of draftees, in large part to select appropriate people for leadership positions.
These early psychological assessments performed on large groups of people were quickly identified as being valuable tools to be used in the educational system, thus beginning the standardized testing movement that in the early twenty-first century is still a strong aspect of U. At the same time, vocational guidance was spreading throughout the country, so that by more than high schools had some type of vocational guidance system. In the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed and helped legitimize and increase the number of guidance counselors.
Early vocational guidance counselors were often teachers appointed to assume the extra duties of the position in addition to their regular teaching responsibilities. The s and s saw an expansion of counseling roles beyond working only with vocational concerns. Social, personal, and educational aspects of a student's life also needed attention. The Great Depression of the s led to the restriction of funds for counseling programs.
Not until , after a recommendation from a presidential committee and the passage of the George Dean Act, which provided funds directly for the purposes of vocational guidance counseling, did guidance counselors start to see an increase in support for their work.
After World War II a strong trend away from testing appeared. One of the main persons indirectly responsible for this shift was the American psychologist Carl Rogers.
Many in the counseling field adopted his emphasis on "nondirective" later called "client-centered" counseling. These two works defined a new counseling theory in complete contrast to previous theories in psychology and counseling. This new theory minimized counselor advice-giving and stressed the creation of conditions that left the client more in control of the counseling content.
Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages, NDEA also provided aid in other areas, including technical education, area studies, geography, English as a second language, counseling and guidance, school libraries, and educational media centers.
Further support for school counseling was spurred by the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science. Hence, by providing appropriate funding for education, including guidance and counseling, it was thought that more students would find their way into the sciences. The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors.
The s also brought many more counseling theories to the field, including Frederick Perl's gestalt therapy, William Glasser's reality therapy, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May's existential approach, and John Krumboltz's behavioral counseling approach. It was during this time that legislative support and an amendment to the NDEA provided funds for training and hiring school counselors with an elementary emphasis.
In the s the school counselor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program. There was an emphasis on accountability of services provided by school counselors and the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations. This decade also gave rise to the special education movement. The educational and counseling needs of students with disabilities was addressed with the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in The s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling.
This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular. In order for schools to provide adequate educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities, school counselors were trained to adapt the educational environment to student needs. The duties and roles of many counselors began to change considerably. The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student's educational development.
The ASCA compensated partially with the development of national standards for school counseling programs. These standards clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of school counseling programs and showed the necessity of school counseling for the overall educational development of every student.
Elementary school level. In elementary schools, counselors spend their time with children individually, in small groups, or in classrooms—thus having some connection with every student in the school. With the advent of systems thinking, the elementary school counselor now has a working relationship with students' families and with community social agencies.
Although the roles of school counselors vary among settings, common tasks include individual counseling, small-group counseling, large-group or classroom presentations, involvement in schoolwide behavior plans for promoting positive and extinguishing negative behaviors, and consulting with teachers, parents, and the community.
Additional duties might include developing classroom management plans or behavior plans for individual students, such as conducting SST and IEP meetings. Middle and high school level. Like elementary school counselors, the roles of middle and high school counselors vary depending on the district and the school administrators. Counselors deal with a vast array of student problems—personal, academic, social, and career issues. Typically, these areas get blended together when working with a student on any one topic; hence, it is impossible to separate the duties of a counselor on the basis of a particular problem.
Counselors in middle and high school have experience with all these areas and work with others in the school and community to find resources when a need arises. It is common for a school counselor to be the first person a student with a difficulty approaches.
The school counselor then assesses the severity of the problem in order to provide appropriate support. School administrators sometimes assign counselors such responsibilities as class scheduling, discipline, and administration. These tasks can be integrated with the goals of school counseling but can also dilute the time available for helping individuals.
The requirements for the credentialing in some locations called certification, licensure, or endorsement of professional school counselors vary from state to state. All states and the District of Columbia require a graduate education i. A majority of states also require that graduate work include a certain number of practicum hours, ranging from to , in a school setting. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships.
Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling. Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse.
Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check. Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.
Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system.
The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.
A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors.
The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student—counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1, to a low of about , so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking. Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred.
There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.
Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders—an age before most students join a gang.
Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education. Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level.
Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education.
Career guidance plays a key role in helping labour markets work and education systems meet their goals. Social mobility relies on wider acquisition not just of knowledge and skills, but of an understanding about how to use them. In this context, the mission of career guidance is widening, to become part of lifelong learning. Key words lifelong learning, lifelong guidance, career guidance and counselling Concept and Definition of Career Guidance and Counselling The concept of career guidance has been widely used since the early seventies, although only lately it has been insisted on a comprehensive approach of managing career during the entire lifetime. Professional orientation and career guidance represent an organized system of social and professional work on providing continuing help to the individual for the entire duration of his career development, in free choice of direction and orientation, in education and professional activity, with the goal of achieving a professional identity, in accordance with personal traits and the labour market demand for specific occupations. Professional orientation is a concept that has been used since the twenties, when first counselling centres were established. During the seventies, the term career guidance and counselling started to emerge and be used simultaneously.
Guidance and counselling services have gained significant attention in recent years. Counselling is a complex helping process in which the counsellor set up a trusting and confidential working relationship, where the focal point is on problem-solving, decision-making, and discovering personal meaning related to learning and development. Guidance and counselling are imperative needs for children, and educational institution has a massive role in bringing out the best in children. Through counselling, children are given advice on how to manage and deal with emotional conflict and personal problems. Counselling service will incorporate valuable lessons and assist them to find a better solution of problems in their daily life.
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CONCEPT, DEFINITION AND ACTIVITIES OF CAREER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
An international scoping project on school-based counseling showed school counseling is mandatory in 39 countries, 32 USA states, one Australian state, 3 German states, 2 countries in the United Kingdom, and three provinces in Canada. In other cases, school counseling is provided by classroom teachers who either have such duties added to their typical teaching load or teach only a limited load that also includes school counseling activities India, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Zambia. While national policy supports school counseling, only one Australian state requires it.
Comprehensive Guidance Program. Adopted by the Board of Directors — March 20 th , The comprehensive school guidance and counseling program targets four main areas of development:.
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Вы читаете мои мысли, мисс Флетчер. Сьюзан Флетчер словно была рождена для тайных поисков в Интернете. Год назад высокопоставленный сотрудник аппарата Белого дома начал получать электронные письма с угрозами, отправляемые с некоего анонимного адреса. АНБ поручили разыскать отправителя.
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Она подумала, что дело, быть может, в неисправном ионизаторе воздуха.