File Name: trait and type theories of personality .zip
- Trait theory
- The Trait Theory of Personality
- Type and trait approaches to personality
- Personality psychology
Motivation, management, communications, relationships - focused on yourself or others - are a lot more effective when you understand yourself, and the people you seek to motivate or manage or develop or help. Understanding personality is also a key to unlocking elusive human qualities, for example leadership , motivation , and empathy , whether your purpose is self-development, helping others, or any other field relating to people and how we behave.
In order to successfully sell a product you have to know who to sell it to. Therefore, being able to accurately characterize consumers is a crucial goal of marketing and consumer behavior research. But interest in creating these characterizations exists outside just the marketing world: developing systematic ways of describing people and their personalities has been a goal of psychology from its early days.
Over the years there have been many different theories regarding what personality is, how it arises and how we can categorize it. For example, Sigmund Freud was a proponent of psychodynamic theories , suggesting that personality is influenced by the unconscious and the progression through psychosexual stages, and B.
Skinner advocated for behavioral theories that view personality as a result of individual interactions with the environment. One important and ongoing dichotomy in beliefs in this field is between type theory and trait theory. Like other theories in personality psychology, these two approaches attempt to systematically categorize people, but go about this goal in different ways.
The essential difference between the trait theory and type theory is this: type theory views characteristics of people as discrete categories whereas trait theory views these same characteristics as part of a larger continuum. For example, where a type theorist would claim that introverts and extroverts are two types of people, a trait theorist would claim there is a gradient leading from introversion to extroversion and it is possible for individuals to fall somewhere in the middle.
Type theory has its roots in personality scales such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator , which posits 16 personality types deriving from a set of four fundamental dichotomies: extroversion vs. Many psychologists have recently shifted away from type theory in favor of trait theory. With a trait theory approach, there is an infinite number of places on the sliding scales of traits individuals could fall.
Used correctly, this view of traits offers a back door to understanding consumer decision-making and can allow for flexible customized segmentations based on the aforementioned motivations, rather than arbitrary "universal" types. Opening our view of personality to this broader scope can also allow for the inclusion of other factors that can be viewed on continuums -- like fashion sense or sense of humor -- into our descriptive model.
These factors may not be explicitly related to personality, but we can refer to them as psychological traits, as they are still important in terms of figuring out who people are.
By determining valid and reliable measurements of these useful constructs, we can develop a powerful way of analyzing individuals that moves away from strict categorizations and towards a deep understanding of the variance within segmentations. In turn, this procession of interpretation, from traits to motivations to behaviors, can lead to valuable insights about consumer behavior and decision-making.
Posted by Madeline Ford on Jun 12, Go to MotiveMetrics. Psychological Traits vs. Personality Type Theory In order to successfully sell a product you have to know who to sell it to. Add a comment Name. Subscribe to Follow Up Comments for this Post. Search Find.
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The Trait Theory of Personality
If someone asked you to describe a close friend's personality , what kind of things would you say? A few things that might come to mind are descriptive terms, such as "outgoing," "kind" and "even-tempered. What exactly does this the word "trait" mean? A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways. The trait approach to personality is one of the major theoretical areas in the study of personality.
The unique pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which each person can be distinguished from other people. Personality is fundamental to the study of psychology. The major systems evolved by psychiatrists and psychologists since Sigmund Freud to explain human mental and behavioral processes can be considered theories of personality. These theories generally provide ways of describing personal characteristics and behavior, establish an overall framework for organizing a wide range of information, and address such issues as individual differences, personality development from birth through adulthood, and the causes, nature, and treatment of psychological disorders. Perhaps the earliest known theory of personality is that of the Greek physician Hippocrates c. Individual personality was determined by the amount of each of the four humors. Hippocrates' system remained influential in Western Europe throughout the medieval and Renaissance periods.
Personality , a characteristic way of thinking , feeling, and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. The term personality has been defined in many ways, but as a psychological concept two main meanings have evolved. The first pertains to the consistent differences that exist between people: in this sense, the study of personality focuses on classifying and explaining relatively stable human psychological characteristics. The second meaning emphasizes those qualities that make all people alike and that distinguish psychological man from other species; it directs the personality theorist to search for those regularities among all people that define the nature of man as well as the factors that influence the course of lives.
Type and trait approaches to personality. Personality types Multitrait approaches • Eysenck's theory • Cattell's theory • The 'Big Five'
Type and trait approaches to personality
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. It is a scientific study which aims to show how people are individually different due to psychological forces. The word personality originates from the Latin persona , which means " mask ".
In order to successfully sell a product you have to know who to sell it to. Therefore, being able to accurately characterize consumers is a crucial goal of marketing and consumer behavior research. But interest in creating these characterizations exists outside just the marketing world: developing systematic ways of describing people and their personalities has been a goal of psychology from its early days. Over the years there have been many different theories regarding what personality is, how it arises and how we can categorize it. For example, Sigmund Freud was a proponent of psychodynamic theories , suggesting that personality is influenced by the unconscious and the progression through psychosexual stages, and B.
A large number of approaches to studying the personality have been put forward by many theorists. One of these is the type and trait theories to Personality. One of the earliest Type theory of Personality was proposed in 5th Century B. C by greek physician Hippocrates. He had proposed a typology of personality based on fluid or humour. He classified people into four types:.
By Saul McLeod , updated What is this thing we call personality? Consider the following definitions, what do they have in common? Both definitions emphasize the uniqueness of the individual and consequently adopt an idiographic view. The idiographic view assumes that each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person; and that there are times when it is impossible to compare one person with others. It tends to use case studies for information gathering.
In psychology , trait theory also called dispositional theory is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits , which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought , and emotion. Traits are in contrast to states , which are more transitory dispositions. In some theories and systems, traits are something a person either has or does not have, but in many others traits are dimensions such as extraversion vs. There are two approaches to define traits: as internal causal properties or as purely descriptive summaries.
Traits, in psychology, refer to the ways in which we generally describe a person. The descriptive terms such as out-going, short tempered, generous are all traits. Traits can be defined as a stable characteristic that causes a person to depict a response to any situations in certain ways. Trait theories indicate that the traits are always constant regardless of the situations.
Невероятно, - подумала она, - двадцать шесть тысяч служащих, двадцатимиллиардный бюджет - и они не могут обойтись без меня в уик-энд. Она поставила машину на зарезервированное за ней место и выключила двигатель. Миновав похожую на сад террасу и войдя в главное здание, она прошла проверку еще на двух внутренних контрольных пунктах и наконец оказалась в туннеле без окон, который вел в новое крыло.