File Name: air pollution and global warming history science and solutions .zip
- History of climate change science
- Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions
- Global Warming
- What is climate change? A really simple guide
While Covid has shaken much of human society, the threat posed by global warming has not gone away.
History of climate change science
The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect was first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism to solar variation. In the s, the evidence for the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing. Some scientists also pointed out that human activities that generated atmospheric aerosols e. During the s, scientific opinion increasingly favored the warming viewpoint.
Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions
Efforts to address climate change should focus not only on substantially reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also on actions to reduce those climate pollutants that remain in the atmosphere for much shorter periods of time. Despite their short atmospheric lifetimes, short-lived climate pollutants SLCPs —such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ground-level ozone, and hydrofluorocarbons— have a high global warming potential. This means that, per molecule, they can warm the Earth faster than carbon dioxide. SLCPs are the second largest contributor to human-caused climate warming after carbon dioxide, contributing up to 45 percent of global warming to date, and targeted efforts to reduce SLCP emissions could slow the pace of global warming by 0. In addition, many of these short-lived climate pollutants are also air pollutants, which are harmful for human and plant health. The UN Environmental Program and the World Meteorological Organization estimate that specific reductions in methane and black carbon emitting activities could save 2. It is important to note that some SLCPs are emitted alongside gases and aerosols that have a cooling effect.
What is global warming? What causes global warming? What is climate change? Is it different from global warming? What is a climate change impact? What does global warming have to do with severe weather, like storms, heat waves, droughts, and hurricanes?
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Welcome to the web page of the textbook, "Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions," by Mark Z. Jacobson (Cambridge University.
Changes in climate can result in impacts to local air quality. Atmospheric warming associated with climate change has the potential to increase ground-level ozone in many regions, which may present challenges for compliance with the ozone standards in the future. The impact of climate change on other air pollutants, such as particulate matter, is less certain, but research is underway to address these uncertainties.
Natural gas is a fossil fuel, though the global warming emissions from its combustion are much lower than those from coal or oil. Natural gas emits 50 to 60 percent less carbon dioxide CO2 when combusted in a new, efficient natural gas power plant compared with emissions from a typical new coal plant [ 1 ]. The drilling and extraction of natural gas from wells and its transportation in pipelines results in the leakage of methane, primary component of natural gas that is 34 times stronger than CO2 at trapping heat over a year period and 86 times stronger over 20 years [ 3 ].
What is climate change? A really simple guide
Jacobson Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, This book provides an introduction to the history, science, and solutions of local and global air pollution and global warming. It first introduces the history of discovery of chemicals in the air, then discusses the historic evolution of the Earth's atmosphere and the structure and composition of the present-day atmosphere. Subsequently, it examines historical, scienctific, and regulatory aspects of five major air-related topics: urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, global stratospheric and Antarctic ozone reduction, and global warming.
Global warming , the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Increases in greenhouse gases —i. Continued global warming is expected to impact everything from energy use to water availability to crop productivity throughout the world. Poor countries and communities with limited abilities to adapt to these changes are expected to suffer disproportionately. Global warming is already being associated with increases in the incidence of severe and extreme weather, heavy flooding , and wildfires —phenomena that threaten homes, dams, transportation networks, and other facets of human infrastructure. Temperature increases related to global warming have been the most pronounced at the poles, where they often make the difference between frozen and melted ice. Polar bears rely on small gaps in the ice to hunt their prey.
His timely book,. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions (second edition), is an encouraging overview of environmental issues linked.
In the following viewpoint, Canadell argues that recent efforts to improve energy efficiency and increase the use of clean energy have contributed to a stalling in fossil fuel emissions. However, Canadell contends that governments will need to increase their efforts to meet the climate goals established in the Paris Agreement. He compares the successes and shortcomings of China, the United States, India, Australia, and the European Union in reducing emissions. He examines the practice of storing carbon dioxide underground through carbon capture and storage CCS and concludes that thousands of CCS facilities will be necessary to meet climate goals. In the following viewpoint, Thomas argues that politicians use the issue of climate change as an excuse for the government to interfere in the lives of private citizens. Noting that some climate predictions have overestimated the impact of global warming, the author disputes the widely held belief that global temperatures are rising as a result of human activity.
Терминал Хейла ярко светился.
Где-то в темноте, казалось, прямо над ними, послышались пронзительные гудки. Стратмор повернулся, и Сьюзан сразу же его потеряла. В страхе она вытянула вперед руки, но коммандер куда-то исчез. Там, где только что было его плечо, оказалась черная пустота. Она шагнула вперед, но и там была та же пустота.
В какую-то долю секунды сознание Беккера засекло очки в металлической оправе, обратилось к памяти в поисках аналога, нашло его и, подав сигнал тревоги, потребовало принять решение.