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- Improvisation: Its Nature And Practice In Music: 0306805286: pdf
- Derek Bailey - Improvisation - Its Nature and Practice in Music
- Derek Bailey - Improvisation - Its Nature And Practice In Music
- Improvisation: Its Nature and Practice In Music
Fascinated by the experience of my rather primitive attempts to improvise with the trumpet in the seminar jazz ensemble, I felt the urge to reflect on a theoretical level what exactly makes a good improvisation and how to gain the skills that are necessary for it.
I suggest that analysis-as-improvisation thereby reflects part of what analysis has historically accomplished as well as the goals analysts implicitly pursue. Rather, I would argue, improvisation is a mode of action, or even an attitude, that involves not only degrees of spontaneity but also an implicit or explicit valuation of such freedom with respect to the activity. This hierarchy of values recapitulates, almost uncannily, the structure identified by Bruno Nettl in which compositions take precedence over improvised performances recordings of which may be treated as compositions for the sake of analysis. To put this in the form of a question: If music analysis is first and foremost an activity, and improvisation is a way of acting, in what sense can analysis itself be understood as improvisational? She describes the first, improvisation impromptu , as the sort of improvisation prompted by unforeseen turns of event that force one to adjust a planned course of action; as we say, one improvises a solution.
Improvisation: Its Nature And Practice In Music: 0306805286: pdf
Tip This page contains media that is intended to start playback automatically on opening. This may include sound. Your browser is blocking automated playback. Please click here to start media. Free Improvisation — Method and Genre. Michael Francis Duch.
My area of research has been free improvisation both as a method and a genre, as well as the use of improvisation in experimental music. This essay seeks to clarify why I believe that free improvisation is to be seen as both a method of music-making and a genre of its own. I will investigate this by discussing the relationship between free improvisation and experimental music and its origins, and the history of free improvisation will also be briefly discussed through examples of some of its practitioners.
I will also use examples from my own experience during my research period. An important focal point for me has been the English composer Cornelius Cardew, since his impact on bridging the gap between composed and improvised experimental music cannot be overestimated.
Heavily influenced by American music and art, a form of anti-genre was established - and thus a genre of its own. The term experimental music refers to a form of music that has an unknown outcome: an experiment. The term was first used by the American composer John Cage in describing the music he himself was involved in creating in the early fifties Cage, Later the same term and definition was used by the English musicologist and critic Michael Nyman to define a particular movement in the modern music era of the fifties and sixties in his book Experimental Music — Cage and beyond.
It is from this movement and era that free improvisation as a genre within experimental music was born, and it is therefore I believe that it is important that free improvisation is seen in relation to other experimental musics within the same period. By calling this music a non-idiomatic meta-music they both insist on that this is something entirely different from all other musics, and ultimately this brings forth the question if this is indeed music at all?
This is also something that I will discuss in this essay and is something that I intend to clarify. In retrospect I am astounded by so impoverished a perspective: though it hardly discouraged me or my peers; quite the reverse.
Though not offered helpfully, this was a more reasonable claim. Bailey also claimed that free improvisation is an activity distinctively different from, although somewhat related to, experimental music and the avant-garde. In his book Improvisation - Its Nature and Practice in Music Bailey describes that the main difference is that improvisers seldom conduct experiments and therefore will not describe their music as experimental Bailey, In antiquity, improvisation was an important part of rhetoric training.
We know for a fact that improvisation has been an important aspect of Western music history since medieval times, and that composers like Bach, Mozart and Handel were known to be formidable improvisers, although the word improvisation itself was not used in a musical context until around Alterhaug, Method, genre or both? In my view, the Russian filmmaker Andrei Tarkovsky had some interesting views of art in general and in particular the avant-garde, which he branded as meaningless.
The musician, as well as the composer, is only a medium of the divine and therefore there is no room for creativity and personal influence on the music through the process of music-making. His method of chance operations further proves this, as there are no choices to be made, neither by the musician and interpreter nor the composer, as he used to toss coins or dices and also consult the I Ching as a way of composing without relying on his own personal choices.
Avant-garde and experimentalism. How can Thomas Mann be said to be better than Shakespeare? But what does it mean? How can you experiment in art? Have a go and see how it turns out? For the work of art carries within it an integral aesthetic and philosophical unity; it is an organism, living and developing according to its own laws.
Can one talk of experiment in relation to the birth of a child? It is senseless and immoral. Improvisation: creativity and failure. Tarkovsky's critique of the avant-garde reaches its climax with the rather bold and perhaps even dubious statement mentioned above. I find it interesting, as what is pointed out as a potential weakness by Tarkovsky is at the same time what attracts people to improvisation in general, as well as being the very core of experimental music and its aesthetics.
Failing is essential to both improvisation and experimentalism as they are both involved in events of an unknown outcome. A radio documentary on the music of Cornelius Cardew by the BBC in connection with a Cardew retrospective event arranged by Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival opens with a recording of Cardew himself discussing the topic of failure:.
Often the wonderful configurations produced by failure reveal the pettiness of the goals. Of course we have to go on striving for success, otherwise we could not genuinely fail. These situations require a spontaneous reaction to problem solving that might even be a simple variation of a situation experienced numerous times before. In everyday language, though, improvisation covers a host of different meanings.
Its various usages often cause confusion especially when used as a concept and phenomenon. Second, improvisation as an acute state of readiness, internalised skills and practice; a highly rated way of acting. Here this meaning is based on another important concept, namely one that involves tacit knowledge. Creativity is something that can be spontaneous as in improvisation, but it is also important in other musics and methods of music-making, such as composition.
Even in composition a creative process can often be spontaneous, but as opposed to improvisation one has the ability to revisit and revise ones music whilst composing it, which is arguably the main difference between composition and improvisation.
Non-idiomatic meta-music. Along with Michael Nyman and only a handful of others they provide us with the most important literary work on free improvisation there is, and it is still as valid today as it was then. However, the world has changed since the nineteen sixties — not to mention music and art.
What has a music that was established as an anti-genre and opposed to the continuation of the strict serialism of the European avant-garde become, if not a genre of its own?
At least it has created a cluster of sub-genres throughout its almost half a century of existence. I believe that free improvisation is equally as much a genre as it is a method of music-making.
Although Derek Bailey was striving for a non-idiomatic music his fans, or the ones that know his music and his way of playing, can easily identify him after listening to only a few seconds of his music. The meta-music of AMM seems to be close to what can only be referred to as a genre of its own, but it is still often quite distinctive and can also be identified and therefore classified. If we do call free improvisation a genre, it is still as much or less a genre than jazz and it is equally difficult to differentiate.
As long as there are certain types of performers that are drawn together by mutual aesthetics that are identifiable, there will be different types of genres or categories within any music — even when it is unidentifiable and unclassifiable.
When Derek Bailey describes what the main difference between idiomatic and non-idiomatic music is, he also gives us an idea of what can be seen as the possibility of free improvisation being a genre of its own:. Practicing and rehearsing freedom. The word free, especially when put in front of the word improvisation, has often been the root of every turn this project has taken so far: What level of freedom can be found in so-called free improvisation? Is free improvisation only truly free when the performers involved do not know each other at the moment when they first meet on a stage to improvise together?
Would they be even freer if they in addition to not knowing each other perhaps also performed on an instrument they are not accustomed to? Personally I believe the very opposite to be true: The better I know my instrument and the performers involved, the higher the level of freedom involved in the improvisation itself. And that takes a lot of preparation! Exploring improvisation through personal experiences.
One of my main ensembles throughout this period is the Norwegian quartet Lemur, and more than a third of my concerts in this research period have been with this particular ensemble — 39 out of concerts, to be exact.
None of these concerts were planned in advance as regards to musical content. However, we have worked methodically in rehearsals where we have tried to learn as much as possible about each other through various musical exercises, something which is documented and discussed in an essay I have written about the working-methods of this particular ensemble Lemur - Methods and Music. Performing freely improvised music solo is also an area that I have explored during these three years.
Five of these, and a total of 31 of the concerts I have performed, has involved composed music containing various degrees of improvisation.
This has been important for my understanding of how these compositions might, or might not, be used as improvisational exercises as well as for my understanding of the close relationship between various composed experimental musics in relation to free improvisation.
Teaching improvisation. My own background from being a student at the jazz department of the Institute of Music at NTNU in Trondheim has been important for my research, particularly concerning the areas of pedagogy and teaching. During my research period I have been teaching at the same department and institute where I once was a student, and I have been striving to obtain the same approach as the methods that are already used there.
Although these methods are primarily concerned with melodic, harmonic and rhythmic improvisation within jazz, it is my belief that they can also be used to learn any form or genre of improvisation. In my view, this is also why this particular department has produced some of the finest improvising musicians from Norway and the other Nordic countries.
The general idea is that once you know sufficient chord changes from the repertoire of jazz standards by heart, you can play these and other tunes in any existing key on your instrument. This method of teaching, although rooted in American jazz, is something that can be found more or less in any musical traditions that do not depend on scores, and it is therefore very much both present and useful in improvised musics: listening to, identifying, copying and reproducing a specific sound source.
In order to use this method one has to develop the skills to be able to do so, which is very much a part of the method itself. This involves being able to identify and sing bass lines, chords and chord changes, or clap rhythms, polyrhythm and so forth.
Stevens was a key figure in the development of European free improvisation in the mid-sixties, and he was among the first to invent and use such methods in a pedagogic way in relation to free improvised music:.
Something that I often found myself doing long before I started playing free music or almost any music was grabbing people to play, I remember getting together with a brass band cornet player in the army. And so that was a sort of beginning. This is most of all because his writings supports my belief that free improvisation is something that can be practised, and also because of the resemblance of his methods and exercises to the ones we have developed in Lemur as well as the pedagogical method endorsed by the jazz department at the Institute of Music, NTNU, where I am currently employed.
Documentation and recording. Cardew, Most of my concerts during my research period have been documented by either the recording of audio or video, or simply by photography, and sometimes by a combination of two or all three. The sheer amount of concerts during these three years would be too much to present in the documentation of my final results, as a total of concerts and an average length of each concert being that of roughly 45 minutes, would leave me with almost 83 hours of music, or the equivalent of three and a half days.
I have therefore chosen to document my work through a selection of commercially released CDs, made of both live recordings as well as in studio. A full list of both concerts and CDs with references can be found as appendixes to this document. Various sound engineers professionally recorded all of these CDs and, as I have already mentioned, they have been recorded both live and in studios.
In most cases these recordings have been altered and edited for aesthetical or practical reasons and sometimes both. Once such a process is done I believe we are dealing with a form of composition as opposed to a mere documentation, but even in those situations where the recording is as clean and unedited as possible, it cannot fully replicate the real situation of a live concert.
Since free improvisation is music that is spontaneously created, a recording will never function as anything but a documentation of something that has already occurred. When we add to this the choices we often tend to make regarding editing and mixing, we are in fact rearranging the music, or simply turning improvisation into composition.
We might even alter time by choosing to present a new order of the music rather than the actual order when it was recorded, to make it sound better as an album.
Derek Bailey - Improvisation - Its Nature and Practice in Music
This article provides an overview of research on assessment of improvisation in music and offers suggestions for increasing its centrality in music teaching and learning. With listening, improvising, reading, and composing as context for music teaching and learning, it covers historical and philosophical foundations for, and research on, creativity and improvisation. Six elements repertoire, vocabulary, intuition, reason, reflection, and exemplars contribute to a holistic and comprehensive creative process that inspires spontaneous and meaningful music making. The article concludes with recommendations for replication and extension of research to provide insight for improvisation assessment. Keywords: improvisation , improvisation assessment , music learning assessment , musical creativity , musicianship , rating scale , rubric. Sarath proposed that music curricula require reform to more fully embrace improvisation through multiple musical genres.
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A sher T obin C hodos is a musicologist, pianist and composer. A graduate of the Dave Brubeck Institute as a jazz performer and Columbia University studied Classics , his doctoral dissertation UC San Diego, is on the subject of automated music recommendation. He has received international attention for his work as a pianist and composer www. Journal of Popular Music Studies 1 March ; 32 1 : — In the words of executive director Ajay Heble,. The institute is the biggest of its kind, and its utopic take on improvisation studies, in particular its commitment to social engagement and collaborative action, looms large.
Derek Bailey - Improvisation - Its Nature And Practice In Music
Post a comment. Guitar player Derek Bailey began improvising in the early s. In writing about its various forms he managed to describe improvisation and portray its ubiquity with respect to individual performers; Improvisation enjoys the curious distinction of being both the most widely practiced of all musical activities and the least acknowledged and understood.
Please note that ebooks are subject to tax and the final price may vary depending on your country of residence. Over several years, Bertrand Denzler and Jean-Luc Guionnet have interviewed approximately 50 musicians from various backgrounds about their practice of musical improvisation. Asked questions on topics such as the mental processes behind a collective improvisation, the importance of the human factor in improvisation, the strategies used and the way musical decisions are made, the interviewees highlight the habits and customs of a practice, as experienced by those who invent it on a daily basis.
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Improvisation: Its Nature and Practice In Music
This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Born in Sheffield, Derek Bailey studied music with C. Biltcliffe and guitar with, amongst others, George Wing and Joh
Ну и. Но тебе там понравится. ГЛАВА 50 Фил Чатрукьян остановился в нескольких ярдах от корпуса ТРАНСТЕКСТА, там, где на полу белыми буквами было выведено: НИЖНИЕ ЭТАЖИ ШИФРОВАЛЬНОГО ОТДЕЛА ВХОД ТОЛЬКО ДЛЯ ЛИЦ СО СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫМ ДОПУСКОМ Чатрукьян отлично знал, что к этим лицам не принадлежит. Бросив быстрый взгляд на кабинет Стратмора, он убедился, что шторы по-прежнему задернуты.
Умно, - сказала Сьюзан. Стратмор продолжал: - Несколько раз Танкадо публично называл имя своего партнера. North Dakota. Северная Дакота. - Северная Дакота. Разумеется, это кличка.
Seminar Paper, 2007
Тот протянул руку, взял Танкадо за запястье, поддерживая остававшуюся на весу руку умирающего. Танкадо посмотрел вверх, на свои пальцы, на кольцо, а затем, умоляюще, - на тучного господина. Это была предсмертная мольба. Энсей Танкадо незаметно кивнул, словно говоря:. И тут же весь обмяк.
Вы этого не сделаете, - как ни в чем не бывало сказал Хейл. - Вызов агентов безопасности разрушит все ваши планы. Я им все расскажу. - Хейл выдержал паузу. - Выпустите меня, и я слова не скажу про Цифровую крепость.
Господи Иисусе, - подумал. - Наркотики внутривенно. Кто бы мог подумать. - Проваливай! - крикнула .
Беккер был на седьмом небе. Кольцо у нее, сказал он. Наконец-то. Он не знал, каким образом она поняла, что ему нужно кольцо, но был слишком уставшим, чтобы терзаться этим вопросом.
- Нужно найти ключ Хейла.