Diseases Caused By Deficiency Of Vitamins And Minerals Pdf

diseases caused by deficiency of vitamins and minerals pdf

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NCBI Bookshelf.

Nutritional Deficiencies (Malnutrition)

Vitamin deficiency anemia is a lack of healthy red blood cells caused when you have lower than normal amounts of certain vitamins. Vitamins linked to vitamin deficiency anemia include folate, vitamin B and vitamin C. Vitamin deficiency anemia can occur if you don't eat enough foods containing folate, vitamin B or vitamin C, or it can occur if your body has trouble absorbing or processing these vitamins. It's important to have your doctor diagnose and treat your anemia.

Vitamin deficiency anemia can usually be corrected with vitamin supplements and changes to your diet. Vitamin deficiency usually develops slowly over several months to years. Vitamin deficiency signs and symptoms may be subtle at first, but they increase as the deficiency worsens. Vitamin deficiency anemia develops when your body has a shortage of the vitamins needed to produce enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs throughout your body.

If your diet is lacking in certain vitamins, vitamin deficiency anemia can develop. Or vitamin deficiency anemia may develop because your body can't properly absorb the nutrients from the foods you eat. Folate, also known as vitamin B-9, is a nutrient found mainly in fruits and leafy green vegetables.

A diet consistently lacking in these foods can lead to a deficiency. Deficiency can also result if your body is unable to absorb folate from food. Most nutrients from food are absorbed in your small intestine. You might have difficulty absorbing folate or folic acid, the synthetic form of folate that's added to foods and supplements, if:. Pregnant women and women who are breast-feeding have an increased demand for folate, as do people undergoing dialysis for kidney disease.

Failure to meet this increased demand can result in a deficiency. Vitamin B deficiency can result from a diet lacking in vitamin B, which is found mainly in meat, eggs and milk. However, the most common cause of vitamin B deficiency anemia is a lack of a substance called intrinsic factor, which can be caused when your immune system mistakenly attacks the stomach cells that produce this substance.

This type of anemia is called pernicious anemia. Intrinsic factor is a protein secreted by the stomach that joins vitamin B in the stomach and moves it through the small intestine to be absorbed by your bloodstream. Without intrinsic factor, vitamin B can't be absorbed and leaves your body as waste.

People with endocrine-related autoimmune disorders, such as diabetes or thyroid disease, may have an increased risk of developing pernicious anemia. Vitamin B deficiency anemia can also occur if your small intestine can't absorb vitamin B for reasons other than a lack of intrinsic factor.

This may happen if:. Vitamin C deficiency can develop if you don't get enough vitamin C from the foods you eat. Vitamin C deficiency is also possible if something impairs your ability to absorb vitamin C from food. For instance, smoking impairs your body's ability to absorb vitamin C. Certain chronic illnesses, such as cancer or chronic kidney disease, also increase your risk of vitamin C deficiency anemia by affecting the absorption of vitamin C. A number of factors can affect your body's vitamin stores.

In general, your risk of vitamin deficiency is increased if:. Your diet contains little to no natural vitamin food sources, such as meat, dairy, fruits and vegetables. Vegetarians who don't eat dairy products and vegans, who don't eat any foods from animals, may fall into this category.

Pregnant women with folate deficiency may be more likely to experience complications, such as premature birth. A developing fetus that doesn't get enough folate from its mother can develop birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. If you're thinking of becoming pregnant, ask your doctor whether you should consider taking folic acid supplements so that your body's stores of folate will be enough to support your baby. While vitamin B is important for the production of red blood cells, it's also important for a healthy nervous system.

Untreated, vitamin B deficiency can lead to neurological problems, such as persistent tingling in your hands and feet or problems with balance. It can lead to mental confusion and forgetfulness because vitamin B is necessary for healthy brain function. Without treatment for vitamin B deficiency, neurological complications can become permanent.

Vitamin B deficiency can cause these and other health problems before it leads to anemia. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to scurvy. Signs and symptoms of this rare disease include bleeding under the skin and around the gums. You can prevent some forms of vitamin deficiency anemias by choosing a healthy diet that includes a variety of foods. If you're concerned about getting enough vitamins from the food you eat, ask your doctor whether a multivitamin may be right for you.

Most people get enough vitamins from the foods they eat. But if your diet is restricted, you may wish to take a multivitamin. Smoking interferes with the absorption of nutrients, such as vitamin C, so it can raise your risk of a vitamin deficiency. If you smoke, quit.

If you don't smoke, don't start. If you've tried to quit on your own and haven't been successful, talk with your doctor about strategies to help you quit. Alcohol can contribute to vitamin deficiency anemia. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, moderate drinking is generally considered to be:. A drink is 12 ounces milliliters of beer, 5 ounces milliliters of wine or 1. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products.

Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Vitamin deficiency anemia is a lack of healthy red blood cells caused when you have lower than normal amounts of certain vitamins.

Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Kaushansky K, et al. Folate, cobalamin and megaloblastic anemias. In: Williams Hematology. McGraw-Hill Education; Accessed Oct. Means RT, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Department of Health and Human Services and U. Department of Agriculture. Goldman L, et al. Approach to the anemias. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine.

Elsevier; Pazirandeh S, et al. Overview of water-soluble vitamins. Vitamin C: Fact sheet for health professionals. Green R. Vitamin B12 deficiency from the perspective of a practicing hematologist. Green R, et al. Megaloblastic anemias: Nutritional and other causes. The Medical Clinics of North America.

Folate: Fact sheet for health professionals. Rethinking drinking: Alcohol and your health. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Ferri FF. Vitamin deficiency hypovitaminosis. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor Pruthi RK expert opinion. Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.

Vitamin deficiency

Vitamin deficiency anemia is a lack of healthy red blood cells caused when you have lower than normal amounts of certain vitamins. Vitamins linked to vitamin deficiency anemia include folate, vitamin B and vitamin C. Vitamin deficiency anemia can occur if you don't eat enough foods containing folate, vitamin B or vitamin C, or it can occur if your body has trouble absorbing or processing these vitamins. It's important to have your doctor diagnose and treat your anemia. Vitamin deficiency anemia can usually be corrected with vitamin supplements and changes to your diet.


Retarded growth, bad skin.


Vitamins and Minerals – Deficiency Diseases

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A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body.

Essential nutrients for your body

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Vitamins and Minerals

 - Отпусти .

В том, что вы просто так отдали ей кольцо. - Нет. Я сказала, что нашла его в парке. Я думала, что она мне заплатит, но ничего не вышло. Ну, мне было все равно.

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4 COMMENTS

Justino B.

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B2 (Riboflavin).

Fani M.

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For much of human history, diseases of nutrient deficiency were the norm, and in some parts of the world, they still persist.

Laurene P.

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