Production Of Iron And Steel Pdf

production of iron and steel pdf

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Steelmaking

In the changing global market scenario for raw materials for the steel industry, a number of novel ironand steelmaking process technologies are being developed to provide the steel companies with economically-sustainable alternatives for ironand steel-making. In addition, the steel industry is also focusing on reduction of energy consumption as well as green-house gas GHG emissions to address the crucial subject of climate change. Climate change is presenting new risks to the highly energyand carbon-intensive, iron and steel industry. The industry needs to focus on reduction of energy consumption as GHG emissions to address climate change. Development of alternate ironand steelmaking process technologies can provide steel companies with economically-sustainable alternatives for steel production.

The blast furnace is the first step in producing steel from iron oxides. The first blast furnaces appeared in the 14th century and produced one ton per day. Even though equipment is improved and higher production rates can be achieved, the processes inside the blast furnace remain the same. The blast furnace uses coke, iron ore and limestone to produce pig iron. Coal is a key part of the coke-making process. As the oven is heated, the coal begins to melt so most of the volatile matter such as oil, tar, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur are removed.

Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to iron. Many other elements may be present or added. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, steel is used in buildings , infrastructure , tools , ships , trains , cars , machines , electrical appliances , and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Depending on the temperature, it can take two crystalline forms allotropic forms : body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic.

How Is It Made? An Infographic of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Process

The early application of iron to the manufacture of tools and weapons was possible because of the wide distribution of iron ores and the ease with which iron compounds in the ores could be reduced by carbon. For a long time, charcoal was the form of carbon used in the reduction process. The production and use of iron became much more widespread about , when coke was introduced as the reducing agent. Coke is a form of carbon formed by heating coal in the absence of air to remove impurities. Molten iron is then allowed to run out the bottom of the furnace, leaving the slag behind. Originally, the iron was collected in pools called pigs, which is the origin of the name pig iron.


Iron and Steel Production i. PREFACE. 1. Status of this document. Unless otherwise stated, references to 'the Directive' in this document refer to.


The modern technology of iron and steel production and possible ways of their development

The ores used in making iron and steel are iron oxides, which are compounds of iron and oxygen. The major iron oxide ores are hematite, which is the most plentiful, limonite, also called brown ore, taconite, and magnetite, a black ore. Magnetite is named for its magnetic property and has the highest iron content. Taconite, named for the Taconic Mountains in the northeastern United States, is a low-grade, but important ore, which contains both magnetite and hematite.

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In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen , silicon , phosphorus , sulfur and excess carbon most important impurity are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese , nickel , chromium , carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities termed "inclusions" in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel. Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late 14th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the s and s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry. Today there are two major commercial processes for making steel, namely basic oxygen steelmaking , which has liquid pig-iron from the blast furnace and scrap steel as the main feed materials, and electric arc furnace EAF steelmaking, which uses scrap steel or direct reduced iron DRI as the main feed materials.

 - Он положил руку ей на плечо.  - Я никогда не послал бы туда Дэвида, если бы считал, что это связано хоть с малейшей опасностью.  - Он улыбнулся.  - Поверь. При первых же признаках опасности я отправлю к нему профессионалов.

Но это полный абсурд. Неужели Хейл никогда не слышал о принципе Бергофского. - Вот что нам надо сделать.  - Стратмор начал спокойно излагать свой план.  - Мы сотрем всю переписку Хейла с Танкадо, уничтожим записи о том, что я обошел систему фильтров, все диагнозы Чатрукьяна относительно ТРАНСТЕКСТА, все данные о работе компьютера над Цифровой крепостью, одним словом -. Цифровая крепость исчезнет бесследно. Словно ее никогда не .

Все системы должны заработать через пять минут. Грег Хейл убил одного из младших сотрудников лаборатории систем безопасности и взял в заложники моего старшего криптографа.

Фонд электронных границ, воспользовавшись вспыхнувшим скандалом, поносил конгресс за проявленную наивность и назвал АНБ величайшей угрозой свободному миру со времен Гитлера. Новый стандарт шифрования приказал долго жить. Никому не показалось удивительным, что два дня спустя АНБ приняло Грега Хейла на работу. Стратмор решил, что лучше взять его к себе и заставить трудиться на благо АНБ, чем позволить противодействовать агентству извне. Стратмор мужественно перенес разразившийся скандал, горячо защищая свои действия перед конгрессом.

Все дело в алгоритме, сочинить который оказалось не под силу нашим лучшим криптографам! - Стратмор стукнул кулаком по столу. Сьюзан окаменела. Она не произнесла ни слова. За десять лет их знакомства Стратмор выходил из себя всего несколько раз, и этого ни разу не произошло в разговоре с. В течение нескольких секунд ни он, ни она не произнесли ни слова.

Беккер надеялся, что тот внял его совету не надевать пока пиджак. Он начал было вертеть головой, но испугался, что очки в тонкой металлической оправе только этого и ждут, и весь сжался, надеясь, что черный пиджак хоть как-то прикроет его брюки защитного цвета. Увы, это было невозможно.

 Линейная мутация, - простонал коммандер.

1 COMMENTS

Edmund E.

REPLY

Steel production is a hour-a-day, day-a-year process, dependent on a consistent supply of raw materials and huge amounts of energy.

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