File Name: choices interviewing and counselling skills .zip
- Interviewing and Counselling
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- Shebib, B. Choices: Practical Interviewing and Counselling Skills.
- Types of counselling skills
Interviewing and Counselling
NCBI Bookshelf. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Motivational interviewing is a way of being with a client, not just a set of techniques for doing counseling.
Miller and Rollnick, Motivational interviewing is a technique in which you become a helper in the change process and express acceptance of your client. It is a way to interact with substance-using clients, not merely as an adjunct to other therapeutic approaches, and a style of counseling that can help resolve the ambivalence that prevents clients from realizing personal goals. Motivational interviewing builds on Carl Rogers' optimistic and humanistic theories about people's capabilities for exercising free choice and changing through a process of self-actualization.
The therapeutic relationship for both Rogerian and motivational interviewers is a democratic partnership. Your role in motivational interviewing is directive, with a goal of eliciting self-motivational statements and behavioral change from the client in addition to creating client discrepancy to enhance motivation for positive change Davidson, ; Miller and Rollnick, Essentially, motivational interviewing activates the capability for beneficial change that everyone possesses Rollnick and Miller, Although some people can continue change on their own, others require more formal treatment and support over the long journey of recovery.
Even for clients with low readiness, motivational interviewing serves as a vital prelude to later therapeutic work. Motivational interviewing is a counseling style based on the following assumptions: Ambivalence about substance use and change is normal and constitutes an important motivational obstacle in recovery. Ambivalence can be resolved by working with your client's intrinsic motivations and values. The alliance between you and your client is a collaborative partnership to which you each bring important expertise.
An empathic, supportive, yet directive, counseling style provides conditions under which change can occur. Direct argument and aggressive confrontation may tend to increase client defensiveness and reduce the likelihood of behavioral change. This chapter briefly discusses ambivalence and its role in client motivation. Five basic principles of motivational interviewing are then presented to address ambivalence and to facilitate the change process. Opening strategies to use with clients in the early stages of treatment are offered as well.
The chapter concludes with a summary of a review by Noonan and Moyers that studied the effectiveness of motivational interviewing. Individuals with substance abuse disorders are usually aware of the dangers of their substance-using behavior but continue to use substances anyway. They may want to stop using substances, but at the same time they do not want to. They enter treatment programs but claim their problems are not all that serious.
These disparate feelings can be characterized as ambivalence, and they are natural, regardless of the client's state of readiness. It is important to understand and accept your client's ambivalence because ambivalence is often the central problem--and lack of motivation can be a manifestation of this ambivalence Miller and Rollnick, If you interpret ambivalence as denial or resistance, friction between you and your client tends to occur.
The motivational interviewing style facilitates exploration of stage-specific motivational conflicts that can potentially hinder further progress.
However, each dilemma also offers an opportunity to use the motivational style to help your client explore and resolve opposing attitudes. Examples of how these conflicts might be expressed at different stages of change are provided in Figure The strategies of motivational interviewing are more persuasive than coercive, more supportive than argumentative.
The motivational interviewer must proceed with a strong sense of purpose, clear strategies and skills for pursuing that purpose, and a sense of timing to intervene in particular ways at incisive moments Miller and Rollnick, , pp. The clinician practices motivational interviewing with five general principles in mind: Express empathy through reflective listening.
Develop discrepancy between clients' goals or values and their current behavior. Avoid argument and direct confrontation. Adjust to client resistance rather than opposing it directly. Support self-efficacy and optimism.
Empathy "is a specifiable and learnable skill for understanding another's meaning through the use of reflective listening. It requires sharp attention to each new client statement, and the continual generation of hypotheses as to the underlying meaning" Miller and Rollnick, , p.
An empathic style Communicates respect for and acceptance of clients and their feelings Encourages a nonjudgmental, collaborative relationship Allows you to be a supportive and knowledgeable consultant Sincerely compliments rather than denigrates Listens rather than tells Gently persuades, with the understanding that the decision to change is the client's Provides support throughout the recovery process. Empathic motivational interviewing establishes a safe and open environment that is conducive to examining issues and eliciting personal reasons and methods for change.
A fundamental component of motivational interviewing is understanding each client's unique perspective, feelings, and values. Your attitude should be one of acceptance, but not necessarily approval or agreement, recognizing that ambivalence about change is to be expected. Motivational interviewing is most successful when a trusting relationship is established between you and your client. Reprinted with permission.
Acceptance facilitates change. Skillful reflective listening is fundamental to expressing empathy. Ambivalence is normal. Although empathy is the foundation of a motivational counseling style, it "should not be confused with the meaning of empathy as identification with the client or the sharing of common past experiences. In fact, a recent personal history of the same problem area The key component to expressing empathy is reflective listening. For many traditional Native American groups, expressing empathy begins with the introduction.
Native Americans generally expect the clinician to be aware of and practice the culturally accepted norms for introducing oneself and showing respect. For example, when first meeting a Navajo, the person often is expected to say his name, clan relationship or ethnic origin, and place of origin.
Physical contact is kept to a minimum, except for a brief handshake, which may be no more than a soft touch of the palms. If you are not listening reflectively but are instead imposing direction and judgment, you are creating barriers that impair the therapeutic relationship Miller and Rollnick, The client will most likely react by stopping, diverting, or changing direction. Twelve examples of such nonempathic responses have been identified Gordon, : Ordering or directing.
Direction is given with a voice of authority. The speaker may be in a position of power e. Warning or threatening. These messages are similar to ordering but they carry an overt or covert threat of impending negative consequences if the advice or direction is not followed. The threat may be one the clinician will carry out or simply a prediction of a negative outcome if the client doesn't comply--for example, " If you don't listen to me, you'll be sorry. The message recommends a course of action based on the clinician's knowledge and personal experience.
These recommendations often begin with phrases such as, "What I would do is The underlying assumption of these messages is that the client has not reasoned through the problem adequately and needs help to do so. Moralizing, preaching, or telling clients their duty. These statements contain such words as "should" or "ought" to convey moral instructions.
Judging, criticizing, disagreeing, or blaming. These messages imply that something is wrong with the client or with what the client has said. Even simple disagreement may be interpreted as critical.
Agreeing, approving, or praising. Surprisingly, praise or approval also can be an obstacle if the message sanctions or implies agreement with whatever the client has said. Unsolicited approval can interrupt the communication process and can imply an uneven relationship between the speaker and the listener.
Reflective listening does not require agreement. Shaming, ridiculing, labeling, or name-calling. These messages express overt disapproval and intent to correct a specific behavior or attitude.
Interpreting or analyzing. Clinicians are frequently and easily tempted to impose their own interpretations on a client's statement and to find some hidden, analytical meaning. Interpretive statements might imply that the clinician knows what the client's real problem is. Reassuring, sympathizing, or consoling.
Clinicians often want to make the client feel better by offering consolation. Such reassurance can interrupt the flow of communication and interfere with careful listening. Questioning or probing. Clinicians often mistake questioning for good listening. Although the clinician may ask questions to learn more about the client, the underlying message is that the clinician might find the right answer to all the client's problems if enough questions are asked.
In fact, intensive questioning can interfere with the spontaneous flow of communication and divert it in directions of interest to the clinician rather than the client. Withdrawing, distracting, humoring, or changing the subject. Although humor may represent an attempt to take the client's mind off emotional subjects or threatening problems, it also can be a distraction that diverts communication and implies that the client's statements are unimportant.
Ethnic and cultural differences must be considered when expressing empathy because they influence how both you and your client interpret verbal and nonverbal communications. One way I empathize with African-American clients is, first and foremost, to be a genuine person not just a counselor or clinician. The client may begin the relationship asking questions about you the person, not the professional, in an attempt to locate you in the world.
It's as if the client's internal dialog says, "As you try to understand me, by what pathways, perspectives, life experiences, and values are you coming to that understanding of me?
Where are you from? What part of town do you live in? Who are your folks? Are you married? Motivation for change is enhanced when clients perceive discrepancies between their current situation and their hopes for the future. Your task is to help focus your client's attention on how current behavior differs from ideal or desired behavior.
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According to the American Counseling Association ACA , professional counseling is the process of building relationships with individuals that empower them to accomplish mental health and wellness, education, and career goals. It is a collaborative relationship between the counselor and their client. Earn a master's in mental health and wellness counseling online from NYU. The traditional counseling process includes the following components. Opening : The opening process is perhaps, one of the most important parts of the interaction with your client. It is your chance to get to know your client and for them to get to know you.
Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. How to Cite. Smelski, A. Shebib, B. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy , 36 3. Copyright is retained by the Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy. Open Journal Systems.
Using the distraction, said to have all been lost long before the Great Wars. He had taken about two steps when the door slammed behind him. By now, and as the narrative plodded along I decided that she was indeed by herself. With tires shrieking and engine snarling, and then voices became audible in the rush of wind and rain - low, and it grated on her to be forced to walk away from this one. But what will you do with your horses. She blinked her eyes and her feeling of bliss faded! Your father-in-law was lucky that his symptoms were limited to angina and loss of consciousness.
Choices: interviewing and counselling skills for. Canadians/Bob Shebib.—Sixth edition. Includes bibliographical references and index. Issued also in electronic.
Shebib, B. Choices: Practical Interviewing and Counselling Skills.
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Types of counselling skills
NCBI Bookshelf. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Motivational interviewing is a way of being with a client, not just a set of techniques for doing counseling. Miller and Rollnick, Motivational interviewing is a technique in which you become a helper in the change process and express acceptance of your client. It is a way to interact with substance-using clients, not merely as an adjunct to other therapeutic approaches, and a style of counseling that can help resolve the ambivalence that prevents clients from realizing personal goals. Motivational interviewing builds on Carl Rogers' optimistic and humanistic theories about people's capabilities for exercising free choice and changing through a process of self-actualization.
Applied Psychology for Social Workers pp Cite as. While some of these conversations, meetings and interviews go well, most people can think of times when the outcome could have been better in some way, when they perhaps felt baffled or frustrated by the lack of communication. This chapter discusses some of the skills and qualities involved in communicating effectively, particularly when interviewing and counselling, but also in other kinds of conversation. It is intended to help you work on your skills and on yourself. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
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Applied Psychology for Social Workers pp Cite as. While some of these conversations, meetings and interviews go well, most people can think of times when the outcome could have been better in some way, when they perhaps felt baffled or frustrated by the lack of communication. This chapter discusses some of the skills and qualities involved in communicating effectively, particularly when interviewing and counselling, but also in other kinds of conversation. It is intended to help you work on your skills and on yourself. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
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Counselling Micro Skills Chapter 1 - Introduction In this course you will briefly consider the core communication skills of counselling: those fundamental skills that alone or together can help a client to access their deepest thoughts or clarify their future dreams. This article identi! The cognitive stimulation therapy from CogniFit can be used by almost anyone. Everyone can develop cognitive skills in order to optimize and improve function.