Mutual Funds Definition And Types Pdf Evaporative Cooling

mutual funds definition and types pdf evaporative cooling

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Turbine inlet air cooling is a group of technologies and techniques consisting of cooling down the intake air of the gas turbine. The direct consequence of cooling the turbine inlet air is power output augmentation. It may also improve the energy efficiency of the system. Gas turbines take in filtered, fresh ambient air and compress it in the compressor stage.

What are cooling towers? Application of cooling tower, definition and how they work

Turbine inlet air cooling is a group of technologies and techniques consisting of cooling down the intake air of the gas turbine. The direct consequence of cooling the turbine inlet air is power output augmentation. It may also improve the energy efficiency of the system. Gas turbines take in filtered, fresh ambient air and compress it in the compressor stage. The compressed air is mixed with fuel in the combustion chamber and ignited.

This produces a high-temperature and high-pressure flow of exhaust gases that enter in a turbine and produce the shaft work output that is generally used to turn an electric generator as well as powering the compressor stage. As the gas turbine is a constant volume machine, the air volume introduced in the combustion chamber after the compression stage is fixed for a given shaft speed rpm. Thus the air mass flow in is directly related to the density of air , and the introduced volume.

The density of the air depends on the relative humidity , altitude , pressure drop and temperature. Different technologies are available in the market. Each particular technology has its advantages and inconveniences according to different factors such as ambient conditions, investment cost and payback time, power output increase and cooling capacity. Inlet air fogging consists of spraying finely atomized water fog into the inlet airflow of a gas turbine engine.

The water droplets evaporate quickly, which cools the air and increases the power output of the turbine. Demineralized water is typically pressurized to psi bar then injected into the inlet air duct through an array of stainless steel fog nozzles.

Demineralized water is used in order to prevent fouling of the compressor blades that would occur if water with mineral content were evaporated in the airflow. Inlet fogging has been in commercial use since the late s and is a popular retrofit technology. As of , there were more than inlet fog systems installed around the world. Inlet fogging is the least expensive gas turbine inlet air cooling option and has low operating costs, particularly when one accounts for the fact that fog systems impose only a negligible pressure drop on the inlet airflow when compared to media-type evaporative coolers.

Fog nozzle manifolds are typically located in the inlet air duct just downstream of the final air filters but other locations can be desirable depending on the design of the inlet duct and the intended use of the fog system. Nevertheless, there are many successful inlet-fogging installations in humid climates such as Thailand, Malaysia and the American Gulf States. Inlet fogging reduces emissions of Oxides of nitrogen NOx because the additional water vapor quenches hot spots in the combustors of the gas turbine.

Fog systems can be used to produce more power than can be obtained by evaporative cooling alone. This is accomplished by spraying more fog than is required to fully saturate the inlet air. The excess fog droplets are carried into the gas turbine compressor where they evaporate and produce an intercooling effect, which results in a further power boost.

This technique was first employed on an experimental gas turbine in Norway in There are many successful systems in operation today. Several gas turbine manufactures offer both fogging and wet compression systems. Systems are also available from third-party manufacturers. The evaporative cooler is a wetted rigid media where water is distributed throughout the header and where air passes through the wet porous surface.

Part of the water is evaporated, absorbing the sensible heat from the air and increasing its relative humidity. The air dry-bulb temperature is decreased but the wet-bulb temperature is not affected. Water consumption is less than that of fogging cooling. In a mechanical compression chiller technology, the coolant is circulated through a chilling coil heat exchanger that is inserted in the filter house, downstream from the filtering stage.

Downstream from the coil, a droplet catcher is installed to collect moisture and water drops. The mechanical chiller can increase the turbine output and performance better than wetted technologies due to the fact that inlet air can be chilled below the wet bulb temperature, indifferent to the weather conditions. Initial capital cost is also higher, however turbine power augmentation and efficiency is maximized, and the extra-cost is amortized due to increased output power.

The majority of such systems involve more than one chiller unit and the configuration of the chillers can have a great bearing on the system parasitic power consumption.

Other options such a steam driven compression are also used in industry. In vapor-absorption chillers technology, thermal energy is used to produce cooling instead of mechanical energy.

The heat source is usually leftover steam coming from combined cycle, and it is bypassed to drive the cooling system. Compared to mechanical chillers, absorption chillers have a low coefficient of performance, however, it should be taken into consideration that this chiller usually uses waste heat, which decreases the operational cost. A thermal energy storage tank is a naturally stratified thermal accumulator that allows the storage of chilled water produced during off-peak time, to use this energy later during on-peak time to chill the turbine inlet air and increment its power output.

A thermal energy storage tank reduces operational cost and refrigerant plant capacity. Another advantage is the reduction of the chilling plant capacity and operational cost in comparison with an on-line chilling system, which produce delays during periods of low demand. In areas where there is demand cooling, daily summer on-peak periods coincide with the highest atmospheric temperatures, which may reduce the efficiency and power gas turbines.

With the vapor mechanical compression technologies, cooling can be used during these periods so that the performance and the power output of the turbine may be less affected by ambient conditions. Another benefit is the lower cost per extra inlet-cooling kilowatt compared to newly installed gas turbine kilowatt [ citation needed ].

Moreover, the extra inlet-cooling kilowatt uses less fuel than the new turbine kilowatt due to the lower heat-rate higher efficiency of the chilled turbine.

Other benefits may include the incrementation of steam mass flow in a combined cycle , the reduction of turbine emissions SOx, NOx, CO2 , [21] and increase in power-to-installed volume ratio. Calculating the benefits of turbine air cooling requires a study to determine payback periods, taking into consideration several aspects like ambient conditions, cost of water, hourly electric demand values, cost of fuel. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Energy portal. Meher-Homji, T. Mee, Savic, B. Hemminger, T. Savic, M. Stevens, Chaker, T. June 5—9, Enhancing gas turbine output through inlet air cooling.

Sudan Eng. Power Engineering : 42— Department of Energy January Stewart, Jr. September CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link. Categories : Gas turbines Energy development Power station technology Psychrometrics Cooling technology Industrial processes. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

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What are cooling towers? Application of cooling tower, definition and how they work

MEP series towers are designed and engineered on calculation models and on tested building solutions; they are designed for industrial, continuous and heavy duty use. MEP towers Cooling towers, are based on the physics principle of evaporation; they cool small and large quantities of water; various types of industries use them to cool their machinery or When within an industrial process there are thermal cycles necessary to carry out the process e. Temperature or generated by the process e. Heating oil presses , it is necessary to remove the unused heat or produced in excess in order to continue the process.


Heating and cooling consume half of the EU's the LIFE programme and under the European Structural and Investment funds. Also important to understand the type of actions funded is the definition of Phase 2 funds several types of activities: prototyping, Evaporative Cooling Technologies for dry and humid climates.


Mutual funds definition and types pdf evaporative cooling

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content. Research report provides Evaporative Cooler market size, growth, sales, market revenue and future aspects of market growth by considering market share and market trend. Research report gives advice on business growth by considering various aspects of Evaporative Cooler market to manage risk.

By definition, hybrid cooling is as much about architecture as it is about engineering to support the types of cooling concepts to be addressed by this project. For example, e. Evaporative Cooling and Desiccant Cooling. Keywords: corrugated plate heat exchanger, spray humidification air cooler, heat To solve this problem, evaporative cooling is proposed to enhance the air air cooler is selected for this study because of its low initial investment, high rate of nozzle type used in experiments is the pressure-type spiral nozzle TF6 see.

Turbine inlet air cooling

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Turbine inlet air cooling

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Mutual funds definition and types pdf evaporative cooling. There are two basic types of evaporative air coolers (EAC's). The other type of EAC is called “indirect”​.

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The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

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Mar 05, (The Expresswire) -- Global "Evaporative Cooling Mutual Fund Screener · Upgrades & Downgrades · Mutual Fund Get a Sample PDF of Report of the market is done on regions, types, and applications in the report. Cooling market across the globe shows industry summary, definition.

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