Anatomy And Physiology Digestive System Notes Pdf

anatomy and physiology digestive system notes pdf

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Gastrointestinal tract

The digestive system uses mechanical and chemical activities to break food down into absorbable substances during its journey through the digestive system. Table Visit this site for an overview of digestion of food in different regions of the digestive tract. Note the route of non-fat nutrients from the small intestine to their release as nutrients to the body. The processes of digestion include six activities: ingestion, propulsion, mechanical or physical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation.

The human digestive system, also known as the digestive tract, the GI tract, the alimentary canal is a series of connected organs leading from the mouth to the anus. The digestive system allows us to break down the food we eat to obtain energy and nourishment. The digestive system -- which can be up to 30 feet in length in adults -- is usually divided into eight parts: the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine or "small bowel" and the large intestine also called "large bowel" or "colon" with the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder adding secretions to help digestion. These organs combine to perform six tasks: ingestion, secretion, propulsion, digestion, absorption, and defecation. The mouth starts the process by ingesting and mechanically breaking down the food we eat into a swallowable form, adding some early secretions to start the process of digestion.

Gastrointestinal system anatomy

The gastrointestinal tract , GI tract , GIT , digestive tract , digestion tract , alimentary canal is the tract from the mouth to the anus which includes all the organs of the digestive system in humans and other animals. Food taken in through the mouth is digested to extract nutrients and absorb energy, and the waste expelled as feces. The mouth , esophagus , stomach and intestines are all part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All vertebrates and most invertebrates have a digestive tract. The sponges , cnidarians , and ctenophores are the early invertebrates with an incomplete digestive tract having just one opening instead of two, where food is taken in and waste expelled.


and hormonal mechanisms – food moving along the oral cavity and esophagus stimulates the parasympathetic nerves to activate the secretion in gastric glands.


Quick Anatomy Lesson: Human Digestive System

The gastrointestinal tract GIT consists of a hollow muscular tube starting from the oral cavity, where food enters the mouth, continuing through the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestines to the rectum and anus, where food is expelled. There are various accessory organs that assist the tract by secreting enzymes to help break down food into its component nutrients. Thus the salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gall bladder have important functions in the digestive system. Food is propelled along the length of the GIT by peristaltic movements of the muscular walls.

The digestive system is a kind of processing plant inside the body. It takes in food and pushes it through organs and structures where the processing happens. The fuels and nutrients we need are extracted, and the digestive system discards the rest. The digestive system includes structures that form the alimentary canal and the accessory organs of digestion. Digestion breaks down large compounds in food and liquids into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Accessory Organs: Glands and Organs That Facilitate the Process of Digestion

23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation

The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system is divided into two major parts:. The treatment of food in the digestive system involves the following seven processes:. Propulsion is the movement of food along the digestive tract. The major means of propulsion is peristalsis, a series of alternating contractions and relaxations of smooth muscle that lines the walls of the digestive organs and that forces food to move forward. Secretion of digestive enzymes and other substances liquefies, adjusts the pH of, and chemically breaks down the food.

Food that is chewed in the oral cavity then swallowed ends up in the stomach where it is further digested so its nutrients can be absorbed in the small intestine. The salivary glands, liver and gall bladder, and the pancreas aid the processes of ingestion, digestion, and absorption. These accessory organs of digestion play key roles in the digestive process. Each of these organs either secretes or stores substances that pass through ducts into the alimentary canal. Six salivary glands, located around the oral cavity, secrete saliva.

The function of the digestive system is to break down the foods you eat, release their nutrients, and absorb those nutrients into the body. Although the small intestine is the workhorse of the system, where the majority of digestion occurs, and where most of the released nutrients are absorbed into the blood or lymph, each of the digestive system organs makes a vital contribution to this process. Figure 1. All digestive organs play integral roles in the life-sustaining process of digestion. As is the case with all body systems, the digestive system does not work in isolation; it functions cooperatively with the other systems of the body. Consider for example, the interrelationship between the digestive and cardiovascular systems. Arteries supply the digestive organs with oxygen and processed nutrients, and veins drain the digestive tract.


1. Anatomy & Physiology (B&C). Overview and Digestive System Handout prepared by. Karen L. Lancour. National Rules Committee Chairman – Life.


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