File Name: genetically modified crops pros and cons .zip
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Foods Advantages of Genetically Modified Foods
- Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO foods
- What are the pros and cons of GMO foods?
Many consumers in the European Union, regardless of their level of education or nationality, take a critical distance from genetic engineering in food production. Several surveys have repeatedly shown that their vast majority do not want GM foods. GMOs create a path that leads to advantages and benefits, but also raises extremely important questions. Even over 20 years after the introduction of gene plants, we still lack on an extensive study on effects of genetically modified plants on humans.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Foods Advantages of Genetically Modified Foods
The global area sown to genetically modified GM varieties of leading commercial crops soybean, maize, canola, and cotton has expanded over fold over two decades. Crop production and productivity increased significantly during the era of the adoption of GM crops; some of this increase can be attributed to GM technology and the yield protection traits that it has made possible even if the GM traits implemented to-date are not yield traits per se. GM crops have also been credited with helping to improve farm incomes and reduce pesticide use.
Practical concerns around GM crops include the rise of insect pests and weeds that are resistant to pesticides. Other concerns around GM crops include broad seed variety access for farmers and rising seed costs as well as increased dependency on multinational seed companies. Citizens in many countries and especially in European countries are opposed to GM crops and have voiced concerns about possible impacts on human and environmental health.
Nonetheless, proponents of GM crops argue that they are needed to enhance worldwide food production. The novelty of the technology and its potential to bring almost any trait into crops mean that there needs to remain dedicated diligence on the part of regulators to ensure that no GM crops are deregulated that may in fact pose risks to human health or the environment.
The same will be true for the next wave of new breeding technologies, which include gene editing technologies. Genetically modified organisms GMOs result from recombinant DNA technology that allows for DNA to be transferred from one organism to another transgenesis without the genetic transfer limits of species to species barriers and with successful expression of transferred genes in the receiving organism Gray, The acceptance of GM crops by farmers has been rapid, with the global GM production area growing from 1.
The top GM producing countries are the United States GM crops are grown on only 3. The production of GM crops is not equal across the world and in some jurisdictions there is little or no production. Countries in the European Union EU are a notable example in this regard.
This is also true for Switzerland, where, for example, since GM foods and crops have been banned because of strong negative views on the part of both Swiss farmers and citizens Mann, Russia is the world's largest GM-free zone James, a.
Despite the claimed benefits over risks, and the wide adoption of biotech-improved crop varieties in many parts of the world, Europe and Africa still remain largely GM-free in terms of production Paarlberg, This may be due in part to the relative absence of reliable public scientific studies on the long-term risks of GM crops and foods and the seed monopoly that is linked to GM technology development Paarlberg, In Asia, four countries, including Turkey, have banned GM crops.
The extensive adaptation of GM crops does, however, also have some drawbacks. Opponents of GM crops have questioned their necessity in terms of agricultural productivity to feed the world Gilbert, They point to studies that have shown that current agricultural output far exceeds global calorie needs and that distribution, access, and waste are the key limitations to feeding those who are hungry and not gross production per se Altieri, The novelty of GM technology has been both an asset and a challenge for those companies producing GM seeds.
Supporters of GM crops have asserted that GM is merely an evolution of conventional breeding approaches Herdt, They have insisted that humans have been genetically modifying crops for millennia and that GM technology has been an extension and facilitation of natural breeding. At the same time, however, GM crops are patentable, emphasizing that the process is truly novel and different from the natural breeding Boucher, In addition, expert technical assessments acknowledge the unique and novel nature of GM crops Taylor, This situation highlights the conundrum and challenge of not only introducing disruptive new technologies into society but having such technologies accepted by society Van Acker et al.
The socioeconomic nature of most risks along with the continuing farm income crisis in North America has led some to argue for the adoption of a more comprehensive approach to risk assessment of GM crops and all new agricultural technologies Mauro et al. The green revolution of the s and s depended on the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation methods to initiate favorable conditions in which high-yielding modern varieties could thrive.
The environmental impacts, of the adoption of these technologies did in some cases override their benefits. These impacts included polluted land, water, and air, and the development of resistant strains of pests. The pros and cons of GM crops are many and diverse but there is little argument over the ambiguous consequences of this comparatively new technology, and numerous critics noted the potential pros and cons of GM crops as soon as they were launched in the early s Mannion, a , b , c.
The world population has exceeded 7 billion people and is forecasted to reach beyond 11 billion by United Nations, The provision of an adequate food supply for this booming population is an ongoing and tremendous challenge. GM seed companies promised to raise productivity and profitability levels for farmers around the world Pinstrup-Andersen, GM seed companies had expected GM crops to be adopted by farmers because the traits they were incorporating provided direct operational benefits for farmers that could be linked to increased profits for farmers Hatfield et al.
The proponents of GM crops have argued that the application of GM technology would fundamentally improve the efficiency, resiliency, and profitability of farming Apel, There is an expectation widely held by those in agriculture that GM seeds increase yields, or at least protect yield potential. India cultivated a record The increase from 50, hectares in to Similarly, the benefits that were obtained by resource-poor cotton farmers in South Africa have led many smallholders in South Africa and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa to accept GM cotton Hillocks, Similar benefits were also obtained by resource-poor farmers growing Bt maize in the Philippines James, The adoption of no tillage and minimum tillage practices in agriculture started in the s.
In fact, the largest extension of both no tillage and conservation tillage and the concomitant declines in soil erosion significantly predates the release of the first HT varieties of maize and soybean in National Research Council [NRC], Adoption of HT soybean has a positive and highly significant impact on the adoption of conservation tillage in the United States Carpenter, Substantial growth in no tillage production linked to the adoption of GM HT crops has also been noted in Canada.
Several authors have reported a positive correlation between the adoption of GM HT canola and the adoption of zero-tillage systems in western Canada Phillips, ; Beckie et al. The no tillage canola production area in western Canada increased from 0. The mitigation of soil erosion is important with respect to environmental conservation and the conservation of productivity potential.
This corresponds to taking more than , cars off the road. In addition, a further The impact of GM crops on the carbon flows in agriculture may be considered as a positive impact of GM crops on the environment Knox et al. Herbicide tolerance in GM crops is achieved by the introduction of novel genes. Herbicide tolerant GM crops have provided farmers with operational benefits. Despite all of the weed management options available in traditional canola, significant incentives remained for the development of HT canola.
Thus, canola producers welcomed the prospect of applying a single nonselective herbicide for all weed problems with little concern for specific weed spectrums, growth stages, tank mixture interactions i. Canola tolerant to glufosinate was the first transgenic crop to be registered in Canada Oelck et al.
Canola tolerant to glyphosate Roundup Ready followed shortly thereafter. Additionally, improved pest management can reduce the level of mycotoxins in food and feed crops Wu, Insect resistance in GM crops has been conferred by transferring the gene for toxin creation from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt into crops like maize.
As of the end of the 21st century , insect resistant GM crops were available via three systems Bt variants. Monsanto and Dow Agrosciences have developed SmartStax maize, which has three pest management attributes, including protection against both above-ground and below-ground insect pests, and herbicide tolerance, which facilitates weed control Monsanto, However these claims are mostly based on assumption rather than real experimental data.
There is generally a lack of public studies on the potential human health impacts of the consumption of food or feed derived from GM crops Domingo, ; Wolt et al. However, the GM crops that are commercialized pass regulatory approval as being safe for human consumption by august competent authorities including the Food and Drug Administration in the United States and the European Food Safety Authority in Europe.
Improvement of GM crops that will have a direct influence on health such as decreased allergens Chu et al. Golden rice is one the most known examples of a bio-fortified GM crop Potrykus, Vitamin A deficiency renders susceptibility to blindness and affects between , and , children annually and is very common in parts of Africa and Asia Golden Rice Project, Reduced tillage helps to mitigate soil erosion and environmental pollution Wesseler et al.
It has been claimed that growing Bt maize could help to significantly reduce the use of chemical pesticides and lower the cost of production to some extent Gewin, Therefore, GM technology may hold out further hope of increasing the productivity of agricultural land with even less environmental impact Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], Mannion and Morse , for example, argue that GM crops require less energy investment in farming because the reduced application of insecticide lowers energy input levels, thereby reducing the carbon footprint.
Others note that higher crop yields facilitated by GM crops could offset greenhouse gas emissions at scales similar to those attributed to wind and solar energy Wise et al. Greenhouse gas emissions from intensive agriculture are also offset by the conservation of non-farmed lands. GM crops are sold into a market and are subject to the market in terms of providing a realized value proposition for farmers and value through the food chain in terms of reduced costs of production Lucht, Due to higher yield and lower production cost of GM crops, farmers will get more economic return and produce more food at affordable prices, which can potentially provide benefits to consumers including the poor Lucht, ; Lemaux, GM varieties have provided a financial benefit for many farmers Andreasen, In some regions, GM crops have led to reduced labor costs for farmers Bennett et al.
Whether GM crops have helped to better feed the poor and alleviate global poverty is not yet proven Yuan et al.
The intensive cultivation of GM crops has raised a wide range of concerns with respect to food safety, environmental effects, and socioeconomic issues. The major cons are explored for cross-pollination, pest resistance, human health, the environment, the economy, and productivity.
The out crossing of GM crops to non-GM crops or related wild type species and the adventitious mixing of GM and non-GM crops has led to a variety of issues. Because of the asynchrony of the deregulation of GM crops around the world, the unintended presence of GM crops in food and feed trade channels can cause serious trade and economic issues. The economic impact on U. A more recent example is Agrisure Viptera corn, which was approved for cultivation in the United States in but had not yet been deregulated in China.
Exports of U. District Court, Concerns over the safety of GM food have played a role in decisions by Chinese officials to move away from GM production. The EU has adopted a GM and non-GM crop coexistence directive that has allowed nation-states to enact coexistence legislation that aims to mitigate economic issues related to adventitious presence of GM crops in non-GM crops Van Acker et al. The development of resistant pests is most due to the overuse of a limited range of pesticides and overreliance on one pesticide.
This would be especially true for glyphosate because prior to the development of Roundup Ready crops glyphosate use was very limited and since the advent of Roundup Ready crops there has been an explosion of glyphosate-resistant weed species Owen, Some critics of GM crops express concerns about how certain GM traits may provide substantive advantages to wild type species if the traits are successfully transferred to these wild types.
This situation would be detrimental because the GM crops would grow faster and reproduce more often, allowing them to become invasive FAO, This has sometime been referred to as genetic pollution Reichman et al. The potential impact of genetic pollution of this type is unclear but could have dramatic effects on the ecosystem Stewart et al. Repeated use of a single pesticide over time leads to the development of resistance in populations of the target species.
Resistance evolution is a function of selection pressure from use of the pesticide and as such it is not directly a function of GM HT crops for example, but GM HT crops have accelerated the development of glyphosate resistant weeds because they have promoted a tremendous increase in the use of glyphosate Owen,
Evidence-based pros and cons of GMO foods
Subscriber Account active since. Genetically modified organisms GMOs are living organisms that have had their genes altered in some way. GMOs can be animals or bacteria, but most often they are crops like corn or potatoes that have been tweaked in a lab to increase the amount or quality of food they produce. There are many advantages of GMO crops, but some groups have raised concerns that GMOs may have negative health effects. Here's what you need to know about the pros and cons of GMO foods and whether you should avoid them.
Genetically modified GM foods are organisms that have had new genes added to themselves from other organisms. Being around since , they are produced in a way that is very similar to genetic engineering. The technique used in this type of crop management has been introduced to ensure farmers and merchants are able to improve crop or food quality in a more efficient way. Some people arrogate that this technology will help those in the agricultural industry decrease the amount of wasted crops and foods. But while there are many benefits of genetically modified foods, there are also potential drawbacks that are present.
The global area sown to genetically modified GM varieties of leading commercial crops soybean, maize, canola, and cotton has expanded over fold over two decades. Crop production and productivity increased significantly during the era of the adoption of GM crops; some of this increase can be attributed to GM technology and the yield protection traits that it has made possible even if the GM traits implemented to-date are not yield traits per se. GM crops have also been credited with helping to improve farm incomes and reduce pesticide use. Practical concerns around GM crops include the rise of insect pests and weeds that are resistant to pesticides. Other concerns around GM crops include broad seed variety access for farmers and rising seed costs as well as increased dependency on multinational seed companies.
What are the pros and cons of GMO foods?
Genetically modified organisms or GMOs are a product of a form of scientific farming, where crops are administered with chemicals to increase their sizes and yields. It is becoming more and more common in many types of food we see every day. But due to its concept, it has been a topic in heated debates around the world, with proponents and opponents pushing their arguments.
With widespread introduction of GMOs in recent decades, especially in commercial food, some consumer advocates have mobilized to question the potential health and environmental risks associated with GMOs. Farmers, medical researchers, and leaders from other GMOs related industries argue that advanced forms of biotechnology have led to a reduction in global hunger, disease, and waste. Though the current discussion around GMOs generally revolves around crop commodities such as corn, soybeans, cotton, and canola, the term GMO also applies to the developments of many live-saving medicines that treat illnesses including diabetes, several forms of cancer, ebola, hepatitis A and B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio. Additionally, many household and everyday items like laundry detergent, dish soap, and clothing are also genetically modified. While the debate around GMOs primarily focuses on the potential health and environmental factors at play, GMOs play many additional roles.
The genetic engineering is one of the great marvels of 21st century human. It allowed for precise control over the genetic changes introduced into an organism. Today, we can incorporate new genes from one species into a completely unrelated species through genetic engineering, optimizing agricultural performance or facilitating the production of valuable pharmaceutical substances. Recently, the government of India has examined a proposal on GM mustard seeds despite there being severe opposition to it among environmental activists. Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods.
Engineers design plants using genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, to be tougher, more nutritious, or taste better. However, people have concerns over their safety, and there is much debate about the pros and cons of using GMOs.
Pros of GMOs
Он был потрясен. Мидж и Бринкерхофф охнули в унисон. - Ну и чертовщина. Перед глазами возник текст: PRIMEDIFFERENCEBETWEEN ELEMENTSRESPONSIBLE FORHIROSHIMAANDNAGASAKI - Введите пробелы, - приказала Сьюзан. - Нам предстоит решить одну задачку.
Хотя Энсей Танкадо никогда прежде не видел компьютера, он как будто инстинктивно знал, как с ним обращаться. Компьютер открыл перед ним мир, о существовании которого он даже не подозревал, и вскоре заполнил всю его жизнь. Повзрослев, он начал давать компьютерные уроки, зарабатывать деньги и в конце концов получил стипендию для учебы в Университете Досися. Вскоре слава о фугуся-кисай, гениальном калеке, облетела Токио. Со временем Танкадо прочитал о Пёрл-Харборе и военных преступлениях японцев.
Он проехал тридцать семь миль до их штаб-квартиры, раскинувшейся на участке площадью тридцать шесть акров среди лесистых холмов Форт-Мида в штате Мэриленд. После бесчисленных проверок на контрольно-пропускных пунктах он получил шестичасовой гостевой пропуск с голографическим текстом и был препровожден в роскошное помещение, где ему, как было сказано, предстояло вслепую оказать помощь Отделению криптографии - элитарной группе талантливых математиков, именуемых дешифровщиками. В течение первого часа они, казалось, даже не замечали его присутствия. Обступив громадный стол, они говорили на языке, которого Беккеру прежде никогда не доводилось слышать, - о поточных шифрах, самоуничтожающихся генераторах, ранцевых вариантах, протоколах нулевого понимания, точках единственности. Беккер наблюдал за ними, чувствуя себя здесь лишним.
Всяческие вторжения, способные повредить американской разведке, абсолютно исключались. Конечно, офицеры АНБ прекрасно понимали, что вся информация имеет смысл только в том случае, если она используется тем, кто испытывает в ней необходимость по роду работы. Главное достижение заключалось не в том, что секретная информация стала недоступной для широкой публики, а в том, что к ней имели доступ определенные люди.
- Только подумай - все виды пуленепробиваемого стекла непроницаемы для пуль, но если компания предлагает вам попробовать пробить ее стекло, все хотят это сделать. - И японцы действительно верят, что Цифровая крепость - это нечто особенное. Самое лучшее из того, что можно найти на рынке. - Должно быть, Танкадо держится в стороне от таких вещей, но всем известно, что он гений. Это культовая фигура, икона в мире хакеров.
Сирены по-прежнему выли. Пять секунд. Шесть секунд. - Утечка информации. - Никаких изменений.
Танкадо ни за что не доверился бы Хейлу. - Коммандер, - напомнила Сьюзан, - Хейл однажды уже чуть не угробил нас - с Попрыгунчиком. Танкадо имел основания ему верить.
Источник их находился где-то совсем близко. Сьюзан поворачивалась то влево, то вправо.