File Name: construction and working of lead acid battery .zip
Lead Acid Battery — The type of battery which uses lead peroxide and sponge lead for the conversion of the chemical energy into electrical energy, such type of the electric battery is called a lead acid battery. Because it has higher cell voltage and lower cost, the lead acid battery is most often used in power stations and substations.
Almost every portable and handheld device consist a battery. The battery is a storage device where energy is stored to provide the power whenever needed.
A lead storage battery, also known as a lead-acid battery, is the oldest type of rechargeable battery and one of the most common energy storage devices. Most people are accustomed to using them in vehicles, where they have the ability to provide high currents for cranking power. Although the batteries are reliable, they have a limited life, are heavy to ship, and contain toxic materials that require specific removal methods at the end of their useful life. Lead-acid batteries have moderate power density and good response time. Depending on the power conversion technology incorporated, batteries can go from accepting energy to supplying energy instantaneously.
All lead acid batteries consist of flat lead plates immersed in a pool of electrolyte. Regular water addition is required for most types of lead acid batteries although low-maintenance types come with excess electrolyte calculated to compensate for water loss during a normal lifetime. Lead acid batteries used in the RV and Marine Industries usually consist of two 6-volt batteries in series, or a single volt battery. These batteries are constructed of several single cells connected in series each cell produces approximately 2. A six-volt battery has three single cells, which when fully charged produce an output voltage of 6.
A lead acid battery consists of a negative electrode made of spongy or porous lead. The lead is porous to facilitate the formation and dissolution of lead. The positive electrode consists of lead oxide. Both electrodes are immersed in a electrolytic solution of sulfuric acid and water. In case the electrodes come into contact with each other through physical movement of the battery or through changes in thickness of the electrodes, an electrically insulating, but chemically permeable membrane separates the two electrodes. This membrane also prevents electrical shorting through the electrolyte. Lead acid batteries store energy by the reversible chemical reaction shown below.
Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by starter motors. As they are inexpensive compared to newer technologies, lead—acid batteries are widely used even when surge current is not important and other designs could provide higher energy densities. For these roles, modified versions of the standard cell may be used to improve storage times and reduce maintenance requirements. Gel-cells and absorbed glass-mat batteries are common in these roles, collectively known as VRLA valve-regulated lead—acid batteries. In the charged state, the chemical energy of the battery is stored in the potential difference between the pure lead at the negative side and the PbO 2 on the positive side, plus the aqueous sulfuric acid. The French scientist Nicolas Gautherot observed in that wires that had been used for electrolysis experiments would themselves provide a small amount of "secondary" current after the main battery had been disconnected.
What is Lead Acid Battery : Types, Working & Its Applications
Before directly jumping to know the concepts related to lead acid battery, let us start with its history. So, a French scientist named Nicolas Gautherot in the year observed that in the electrolysis testing, there exists a minimal amount of current even when there is a disconnection of the main battery. Whereas in the year, a scientist named Gatson developed lead acid battery and this was the first one that gets recharged through the passage of reverse current. This was the initial version of this kind of battery whereas Faure then added many enhancements to this and finally, the practical type of lead acid battery was invented by Henri Tudor in
Definition: The battery which uses sponge lead and lead peroxide for the conversion of the chemical energy into electrical power, such type of battery is called a lead acid battery. The lead acid battery is most commonly used in the power stations and substations because it has higher cell voltage and lower cost. The various parts of the lead acid battery are shown below. The container and the plates are the main part of the lead acid battery. Container — The container of the lead acid battery is made of glass, lead lined wood, ebonite, the hard rubber of bituminous compound, ceramic materials or moulded plastics and are seated at the top to avoid the discharge of electrolyte.
Lead Acid Battery Discharge Cycle
Он сам считает как фокусник. Она знала, что он перемножает цифры и намертво запоминает словари, не хуже ксерокса. - Таблица умножения, - сказал Беккер. При чем здесь таблица умножения? - подумала Сьюзан. - Что он хочет этим сказать.
- Вычитайте, да побыстрее.
В ярком свете уличного фонаря на углу Беккер увидел. Молодые люди поднялись по ступенькам, и двигатель автобуса снова взревел. Беккер вдруг понял, что непроизвольно рванулся вперед, перед его глазами маячил только один образ - черная помада на губах, жуткие тени под глазами и эти волосы… заплетенные в три торчащие в разные стороны косички.
19: ОШИБКА В СИСТЕМНОМ РАЗДЕЛЕ 20: СКАЧОК НАПРЯЖЕНИЯ 21: СБОЙ СИСТЕМЫ ХРАНЕНИЯ ДАННЫХ Наконец она дошла до пункта 22 и, замерев, долго всматривалась в написанное. Потом, озадаченная, снова взглянула на монитор. КОД ОШИБКИ 22 Сьюзан нахмурилась и снова посмотрела в справочник. То, что она увидела, казалось лишенным всякого смысла.
Что ж, - сказал Джабба, - мне неприятно первым тебя разочаровать, но твои данные неверны. - Ты так думаешь. - Могу биться об заклад. - Он откусил кусок пирога и заговорил с набитым ртом. - Максимальное время, которое ТРАНСТЕКСТ когда-либо тратил на один файл, составляет три часа.
Похоже, он и на сей раз добьется своей цели. Ключ совсем .