Innate And Adaptive Immunity Pdf

innate and adaptive immunity pdf

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The immune system is typically divided into two categories--innate and adaptive--although these distinctions are not mutually exclusive.

Metrics details. Beyond structural and chemical barriers to pathogens, the immune system has two fundamental lines of defense: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the first immunological mechanism for fighting against an intruding pathogen. It is a rapid immune response, initiated within minutes or hours after aggression, that has no immunologic memory. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is antigen-dependent and antigen-specific; it has the capacity for memory, which enables the host to mount a more rapid and efficient immune response upon subsequent exposure to the antigen.

Innate and Adaptive Immunity

What happen if foreign invader attack the body to the second time in innate immunity? How innate immunity will response? An Ag can specifically bind to an Ab molecule. An Ag i. The term Ag, is used for a molecule i.

As mentioned in Unit 5, the body has two immune systems: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Unit 5 dealt with innate immunity. In Unit 6 we will cover adaptive immunity. Let's first again briefly compare acquired and innate immunity. Innate immunity is an antigen-nonspecific defense mechanisms that a host uses immediately or within several hours after exposure to almost any microbe.

Defense against microbes is mediated by the early reactions of innate immunity and the later responses of adaptive immunity. Figure 1, 2; Table 1. Innate immunity also called natural or native immunity provides the early line of defense against microbes. It consists of cellular and biochemical defense mechanisms that are in place even before infection and are poised to respond rapidly to infections. The mechanisms of innate immunity are specific for structures that are common to groups of related microbes and may not distinguish fine differences between microbes. Adaptive immunity also called specific or acquired immunity system recognizes and reacts to a large number of microbial and nonmicrobial substances. The defining characteristics of adaptive immunity are the ability to distinguish different substances, called specificity, and the ability to respond more vigorously to repeated exposures to the same microbe, known as memory.

12.1: An Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

In Silico Immunology pp Cite as. Innate immune responses recognise generic targets on pathogens using germline encoded receptors, whereas adaptive immune responses recognise specific targets using randomly generated receptors which have an essentially unlimited recognition repertoire. Interactions between innate and adaptive forms of immune recognition are increasingly being recognised as essential for the effective functioning of the immune response. Examples given here demonstrate the advantages of integrating pre-programmed recognition rapid response using widely distributed receptors with random repertoire recognition open repertoire for specific recognition of novel targets, with memory. The interactions between innate and adaptive immunity are many, complex, and bidirectional, with innate mechanisms being instrumental in the initiation of adaptive responses, and controlling the type of adaptive response induced; innate effector mechanisms are also recruited in the effector phase of adaptive responses.

Research Area

NCBI Bookshelf. New York: Garland Science; The macrophages and neutrophils of the innate immune system provide a first line of defense against many common microorganisms and are essential for the control of common bacterial infections. However, they cannot always eliminate infectious organisms, and there are some pathogens that they cannot recognize. The lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system have evolved to provide a more versatile means of defense which, in addition, provides increased protection against subsequent reinfection with the same pathogen.

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Adaptive immune system

Clin Sci Lond 31 July ; 14 : — Recent advancements on the molecular and cellular levels have shaken the traditional view of adaptive and innate immunity. Innate immune cells are able to recognize large number of pathogen- or danger- associated molecular patterns PAMPs and DAMPs to behave in a highly specific manner and regulate adaptive immune responses. On the other hand, T and B lymphocytes exhibit functional properties traditionally attributed to innate immunity such as phagocytosis or production of tissue remodeling growth factors. They are also able to benefit from the information provided by pattern recognition receptors PRRs , e. Innate B cells represent another example of limited combinational diversity usage participating in various innate responses.

Clinical and Basic Immunodermatology pp Cite as. The skin immune system is the complex network of cells that are able to mount an immune response in the skin. The immune response can be divided into innate and adaptive arms. This is highly relevant to both systemic immunity, as well as immunity in the skin.


Synopsis: In this lecture we will review basic concepts in immunology, including the cells of the immune system, the innate and adaptive immune responses.


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The adaptive immune system , also referred as the acquired immune system , is a subsystem of the immune system that is composed of specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. The acquired immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates the other being the innate immune system. Like the innate system, the adaptive immune system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components and destroys invading pathogens.

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