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- EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A PREDICTOR OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG COLLEGE TEACHERS
- Emotional intelligence, emotional self-awareness, and team performance
- Linking Emotional Intelligence and Performance at Work
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EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A PREDICTOR OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG COLLEGE TEACHERS
Sample include of twenty 20 colleges which were selected. Ten male and ten female colleges were selected from location. The sample consists of teachers males and females who were recently teaching as regular teachers in different colleges of Lahore were selected.
Findings of the study show that there is a significant difference in emotional intelligence EI between male and female college teachers. The result of study reveals that emotional intelligence contributes to organizational commitment moderately. This umbrella concept capitulates a wide array of individual predisposition and performance, conceived as soft, intrapersonal and interpersonal skills which exist outside the conventional scenario of parochial knowledge, general intelligence, organizational and technical skills Kierstead, For successful adjustment and becoming a productive social being, the combination of conventional IQ and emotional intelligence EI must be attained.
The aspects of cognitive aspects as general intelligence and problem solving skills and memory belong to the traditional epistemic foundation of academic and clinical psychology.
It is because the radical work of some researchers who founded non-cognitive personality aspects also the strong determinants of individual performance Kiani, Schutte, Malouff, Bobik, Coston and Greeson mentioned the concept of social intelligence in the beginning of twentieth century. The work of these thinkers remained overlooked but started getting acclamation when Gardner in presented his work on multiple intelligence.
Gardner as cited in Geiser, presented the idea that interpersonal or intrapersonal forms of intelligences are of same significance and importance as the form of intelligence which is measured in terms of IQ and other tests related to this.
The theory of Gardner paved way for the emergence of emotional intelligence. After there was accumulation of enormous researches on the contribution of non-cognitive factors which are conducive to success in one s occupation and personal life. He coined and founded the term Emotional Quotient EQ. Bar-On explains emotional intelligence as an assortment of social and emotional knowledge and abilities that bring profound impact on our ability to manage according to environmental requirements.
This assortment includes: 1. He broadened this definition in four domains: Perceiving Emotions: It refers to develop ability to identify one s own feeling in correct way as well as the emotions of others. Using Emotions: It refers to the ability to generate emotions, assimilate and harness one s feelings according to those of others Understanding Emotions: It means the ability to identify the cause and source of emotions.
Managing Emotions: It means the ability to decipher and carry out effective tactics that help one to overcome feelings and attain a goal. The Mayer and Salovey Model of emotional intelligence generated new dimensions of its assessment. Eventually, it explains an array of skills and competencies which are guideline to HR personnel, executives and managers with an all-embracing instrument that clearly explains measures and develops emotional skills George, It was also suggested that several works which are related to consequences like job performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, performance components are strongly linked with emotional intelligence Mayer, Salovey and Caruso, Job performance is one of the major components of behaviour that are closely linked with organizational goals in question.
Tischler, Biberman and McKeage find the bases of organizational settings to the classic theories of management. In fact, many strategies brought out in early assessment centres were based on the evaluation of non-cognitive skills similar to emotional intelligence such as communication, understanding others and social awareness.
These abilities were regarded as predictors of efficient performance at managerial ranks in many organizations. Furthermore, over more than three decades of such types of assessments, the research works have justified the significance of considering social and emotional skills into consideration while attempts to forecast occupational effectiveness.
In a research conducted by Kotter and Schlesinger , they identified lot of personal capabilities including such socio-emotional skills as communication, optimism, relationship skills and need for achievement which are discriminating from less successful general managers.
The set of social competencies such as self-esteem, positiveness and socialized power have appeared to be the predictor of future managerial success Bayatzis, Organizational Commitment Most of the volume in organizational commitment has been conducted by industrial psychologists.
However, no or least focus has been paid to this construct in educational settings. Organization commitment is one of the most desirable attitudes in industrial as well as in educational context. These thinkers explained organization commitment as the strength of individual s identification with an involvement in an organization and proposed that organization commitment is preceded by three components: recognition and faith in organizational values and objectives; eagerness to harness personal for the welfare of organization; and willingness to retain membership of the organization.
Workers having sufficient continuance commitment have ability to stay in organization for long span of time. It is because they are willing to, and those with high normative commitment stay because they think it moral obligation. Steier suggested three antecedents of organization commitment. The first one is an array of personal characteristics of a worker such as education, age and his ambition for achievement.
Second antecedent in the spectrum of organization commitment is linked with job features which refer to accept job challenges, opportunities for successful interaction and the nature of feedback from the organization. The third antecedent is work experience. It refers to employee s attitude towards organization and his dependability on the organization.
Turnover Intention Many researchers have reported Price , that turnover is one of the most significant phenomena in organizational behaviour.
The three components of organization commitment given by Allen and Mayer i. Previous researches have revealed that the attitudes of organization commitment and job satisfaction are the antecedents to turnover intentions Hinshaw, Smeltzer, Atwood, This model comprises three components: capacity, opportunity and willingness to perform.
Together, Opportunity O , willingness W and capacity C contribute to yield observed work performance in the context of organizational commitment OC. Capacity includes age, ability, knowledge, health and knowledge. On the other side, willingness refers to job satisfaction, anxiety, motivation, job status, legitimacy of participation, perceived task, attitude, ego involvement, job involvement and the emotional intelligence of the employee.
Opportunity refers to prevailing conditions, time and pay. The core assumption of the model is that the constructs in each of the components are additive. Of two individuals with same ability a capacity variable , the one with higher energy would have greater organizational commitment. Rooted by Goleman s hot selling works Emotional Intelligence why it can matter more than IQ, this concept has gained considerable fame. The concept of emotional intelligence was coined by Mayer and Salovey b as successful reorganization, appraisal and assessment of emotions.
Interestingly, there is sufficient literature that is related to the role of emotions in organization and categorically emotional intelligence as predecessor to organizational commitment. Are individuals able to express their emotions? Can they identify their feelings? Are they able to understand their emotions related to their workplace? Are they committed to their organization? EI has much to do with one s ability to interact with others. Accordingly, those who are emotionally intelligent might be more loyal to their organization.
Goleman argues that IQ determines mere 20 percent success in life while other factors are determinants to the remaining such as emotional intelligence. Same was held by Cadman and Brewer that those who attain high level of EI are more likely to attain success than those who, despite having satisfactory IQ possess lower emotional intelligence. They also evaluated the significance of IQ and personality traits in the prediction of job success among the school teachers. It was tested in personality whether the teacher is emotionally stable or not, warm hearted or not, undemonstrative or excitable, dominant or democratic, conscientious or not, bold or shy, hardliner or tender minded, reflective or not, self-assured or fearful, self-reliant or group dependant, controlled or not, anxious or relaxed.
These factors are placed in Goleman s factors of emotional intelligence. Harnessing a wide deal of research, Goleman in his book Working with Emotional Intelligence yielded the framework which is based on five clusters that comprise twenty five skills.
These clusters are named as self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. The cluster of self-awareness comprises five skills of emotional awareness, self-confidence and self- assessment. The second cluster of self-regulation comprises five skills of self-control, trustworthiness, innovation, adaptability and conscientiousness. Third cluster named as motivation included competencies like optimism, initiative cooperation, commitment and achievement drive.
Forth cluster of empathy included the forms of awareness like leveraging diversity, service orientation, and political awareness, developing and understanding others. Last and fifth cluster circumscribes eight skills of team capabilities, collaboration, building bonds, leadership, change catalyst, conflict management, communication and influence.
In , Bar-On coined the term emotional quotient. According to Bar- On, in the context of social life, high level of IQ does not guarantee success. To examine emotional intelligence is to measure individual s capability to overcome daily life situations and to get along in this world Bar-On, Bar-On was the first who attempted to assess emotional intelligence in the context of subjective well-being.
He defines emotional intelligence as being the construct which is concerned with identifying self and others, relating to others and adaptation and overcoming the immediate and challenging situations with social demands Bar-On, a. Mediators between EI and Organizational Commitment There are several job related behaviours that significantly mediate between emotional intelligence and organization commitment. In this study, job satisfaction and turnover intentions have been taken as mediators between emotional intelligence and organization commitment.
It is overall appraisal of job characteristics, working conditions and perceived emotional experiences that occur at a work place. Based on observations and emotional experiences, employees tend to evaluate their jobs McClellnd Employees can be satisfied with some job elements as well as dissatisfied with some other elements.
The most conventional notion in the business world is that a happy worker is a productive worker. This notion again portrays the role of emotions. Earlier evidence revealed a moderate relationship between job satisfaction and organization commitment Carnell, However, that impact is shown only through job satisfaction. To explain the issue differently it can be asserted that his research supported the idea that a potential relationship between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment existed.
Furthermore, in accordance with the suggested framework, it has also been discovered in that research that job satisfaction is mediator between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment.
Another study revealed that the key tasks concerning emotional intelligence and worker s commitment are including job satisfaction Prati et al.
Emotional intelligence, emotional self-awareness, and team performance
Preface Current interest in "emotional intelligence" has raised the question of whether it is possible to improve the social and emotional competence of adult workers. Research in training and development, sports psychology, and behavior change suggests that it is possible, but the typical approach used in corporate training programs usually is flawed. Social and emotional learning is different from cognitive and technical learning, and it requires a different approach to training and development. This report presents 22 guidelines for developing emotional intelligence in organizations, based on the best knowledge available on how to promote social and emotional learning. We have estimated that American business each year loses between 5. The basis for this estimate can be found in the last section of the report.
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Linking Emotional Intelligence and Performance at Work
Copyright by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microform, retrieval system, or any other means, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
LEADERSHIP AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: A SYNTHESIS
Studies on Emotional Intelligence are abundant, but further investigations are needed to predict how people perform in the workplace and how leadership links the overall relationship. Each organization needs specific types of emotionally intelligent individuals and transformational leaders to accomplish its goals This study attempts to link emotional intelligence and transformational leadership to job performance. A total of questionnaires were collected from managers in selected organizations in Yemen. Results from this study helps individuals improve their job performance in particular, and their life in general. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Subscription Login to access subscriber-only resources.
An EI-based theory of performance. Cherniss eds. In , in Working with Emotional Intelligence , I set out a framework of emotional intelligence EI that reflects how an individual's potential for mastering the skills of Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and Relationship Management translates into on-the-job success. This model is based on EI competencies that have been identified in internal research at hundreds of corporations and organizations as distinguishing outstanding performers. Focusing on EI as a theory of performance, this chapter presents a new version of that model, looks at the physiological evidence underlying EI theory, and reviews a number of studies of the drivers of workplace performance and the factors that distinguish the best individuals from the average ones.
Emotional Intelligence - EQ - is a relatively recent behavioural model, rising to prominence with Daniel Goleman's Book called 'Emotional Intelligence'. Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing people, because the EQ principles provide a new way to understand and assess people's behaviours, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential. Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service, and more. The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of Emotional Intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are.
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