File Name: agriculture and caste class x .zip
- Gender Religion and Caste class 10 Notes Social Science
- Woman in agriculture, and climate risks: hotspots for development
- India: Issues and Priorities for Agriculture
- About Honey Bees - Types, Races, and Anatomy
There are different types of bees in a honey bee hive: Worker, Drone and Queen.
Gender Religion and Caste class 10 Notes Social Science
Our founding ideals promise liberty and equality for all. Our reality is an enduring racial hierarchy that has persisted for centuries. Photo illustration by Chris Burnett. By Isabel Wilkerson. We heard the man on the ground pleading with the man above him, saw the terror in his face, heard his gasps for air, heard the anguished cries of an unseen chorus, begging the lighter man to stop.
The man on the ground went silent, drained of breath. A clear liquid crept down the pavement. We saw a man die before our very eyes. What we did not see, not immediately anyway, was the invisible scaffolding, a caste system with ancient rules and assumptions that made such a horror possible, that held each actor in that scene in its grip.
Off camera, two other men in uniform, who looked like the lighter man, were holding down the darker man from the other side of the police car as dusk approached in Minneapolis.
Yet another man in uniform, of Asian descent and thus not in the dominant caste, stood near, watching, immobilized, it seemed, at a remove from his own humanity and potential common cause, as the darker man slipped out of consciousness. Protesters tore down a statue of Christopher Columbus in St. Paul, Minn. They toppled a statue of Jefferson Davis in Richmond, Va. The inspector trained his infrared lens onto a misshapen bow in the ceiling, an invisible beam of light searching the layers of lath to test what the eye could not see.
This house was built generations ago, and I had noticed the slightest welt in a corner of plaster in a spare bedroom and chalked it up to idiosyncrasy. Over time, the welt in the ceiling became a wave that widened and bulged despite the new roof. It had been building beyond perception for years. An old house is its own kind of devotional, a dowager aunt with a story to be coaxed out of her, a mystery, a series of interlocking puzzles awaiting solution.
Why is this soffit tucked into the southeast corner of an eave? What is behind this discolored patch of brick? America is an old house. We can never declare the work over. Wind, flood, drought and human upheavals batter a structure that is already fighting whatever flaws were left unattended in the original foundation. When you live in an old house, you may not want to go into the basement after a storm to see what the rains have wrought. Choose not to look, however, at your own peril.
The owner of an old house knows that whatever you are ignoring will never go away. Whatever is lurking will fester whether you choose to look or not. Ignorance is no protection from the consequences of inaction. Whatever you are wishing away will gnaw at you until you gather the courage to face what you would rather not see.
We in this country are like homeowners who inherited a house on a piece of land that is beautiful on the outside but whose soil is unstable loam and rock, heaving and contracting over generations, cracks patched but the deeper ruptures waved away for decades, centuries even.
I have nothing to do with the sins of the past. My ancestors never attacked Indigenous people, never owned slaves. Not one of us was here when this house was built. Our immediate ancestors may have had nothing to do with it, but here we are, the current occupants of a property with stress cracks and bowed walls and fissures in the foundation.
We are the heirs to whatever is right or wrong with it. We did not erect the uneven pillars or joists, but they are ours to deal with now. Unaddressed, the ruptures and diagonal cracks will not fix themselves. The toxins will not go away but rather will spread, leach and mutate, as they already have. When people live in an old house, they come to adjust to the idiosyncrasies and outright dangers skulking in an old structure.
They put buckets under a wet ceiling, prop up groaning floors, learn to step over that rotting wood tread in the staircase.
The awkward becomes acceptable, and the unacceptable becomes merely inconvenient. Live with it long enough, and the unthinkable becomes normal. Exposed over the generations, we learn to believe that the incomprehensible is the way that life is supposed to be. In my own house, the inspector was facing the mystery of the misshapen ceiling, and so he first held a sensor to the surface to detect if it was damp. The reading inconclusive, he then pulled out the infrared camera to take a kind of X-ray of whatever was going on, the idea being that you cannot fix a problem until and unless you can see it.
He could now see past the plaster, beyond what had been wallpapered or painted over, as we now are called upon to do in the house we all live in, to examine a structure built long ago. Like other old houses, America has an unseen skeleton: its caste system, which is as central to its operation as are the studs and joists that we cannot see in the physical buildings we call home.
Caste is the infrastructure of our divisions. It is the architecture of human hierarchy, the subconscious code of instructions for maintaining, in our case, a year-old social order.
A caste system is an artificial construction, a fixed and embedded ranking of human value that sets the presumed supremacy of one group against the presumed inferiority of other groups on the basis of ancestry and often immutable traits, traits that would be neutral in the abstract but are ascribed life-and-death meaning in a hierarchy favoring the dominant caste, whose forebears designed it.
A caste system uses rigid, often arbitrary boundaries to keep the ranks apart, distinct from one another and in their assigned places. Throughout human history, three caste systems have stood out. The lingering, millenniums-long caste system of India. The tragically accelerated, chilling and officially vanquished caste system of Nazi Germany.
And the shape-shifting, unspoken, race-based caste pyramid in the United States. Each version relied on stigmatizing those deemed inferior to justify the dehumanization necessary to keep the lowest-ranked people at the bottom and to rationalize the protocols of enforcement. A caste system endures because it is often justified as divine will, originating from sacred text or the presumed laws of nature, reinforced throughout the culture and passed down through the generations.
As we go about our daily lives, caste is the wordless usher in a darkened theater, flashlight cast down in the aisles, guiding us to our assigned seats for a performance. The hierarchy of caste is not about feelings or morality. It is about power — which groups have it and which do not. It is about resources — which groups are seen as worthy of them and which are not, who gets to acquire and control them and who does not. It is about respect, authority and assumptions of competence — who is accorded these and who is not.
As a means of assigning value to entire swaths of humankind, caste guides each of us often beyond the reaches of our awareness. It embeds into our bones an unconscious ranking of human characteristics and sets forth the rules, expectations and stereotypes that have been used to justify brutalities against entire groups within our species. In the American caste system, the signal of rank is what we call race, the division of humans on the basis of their appearance.
In America, race is the primary tool and the visible decoy for caste. Race does the heavy lifting for a caste system that demands a means of human division. If we have been trained to see humans in the language of race, then caste is the underlying grammar that we encode as children, as when learning our mother tongue. Caste, like grammar, becomes an invisible guide not only of how we speak but also of how we process information, the autonomic calculations that figure into a sentence without our having to think about it.
Many of us have never taken a class in grammar, yet we know in our bones that a transitive verb takes an object, that a subject needs a predicate; we know without thinking the difference between third-person singular and third-person plural.
What people look like, or rather, the race they have been assigned or are perceived to belong to, is the visible cue to their caste. It is the historic flashcard to the public of how they are to be treated, where they are expected to live, what kinds of positions they are expected to hold, whether they belong in this section of town or that seat in a boardroom, whether they should be expected to speak with authority on this or that subject, whether they will be administered pain relief in a hospital, whether they are more or less likely to survive childbirth in the most advanced nation in the world, whether they may be shot by the authorities with impunity.
We know that the letters of the alphabet are neutral and meaningless until they are combined to make a word, which itself has no significance until it is inserted into a sentence and interpreted by those who speak or hear it. And yet, in recent decades, we have learned from the human genome that all human beings are Craig Venter, the genomics expert who ran Celera Genomics when the initial sequencing was completed in Caste and race are neither synonymous nor mutually exclusive.
They can and do coexist in the same culture and serve to reinforce each other. Race, in the United States, is the visible agent of the unseen force of caste. Caste is the bones, race the skin. Race is what we can see, the physical traits that have been given arbitrary meaning and become shorthand for who a person is. Caste is the powerful infrastructure that holds each group in its place.
Its very invisibility is what gives it power and longevity. Caste is rigid and deep; race is fluid and superficial, subject to periodic redefinition to meet the needs of the dominant caste in what is now the United States.
While the requirements to qualify as white have changed over the centuries, the fact of a dominant caste has remained constant from its inception — whoever fit the definition of white, at whatever point in history, was granted the legal rights and privileges of the dominant caste.
Perhaps more critical and tragic, at the other end of the ladder, the subordinated caste, too, has been fixed from the beginning as the psychological floor beneath which all other castes cannot fall.
Thus we are all born into a silent war game, centuries old, enlisted in teams not of our own choosing. The side to which we are assigned in the American system of categorizing people is proclaimed by the team uniform that each caste wears, signaling our presumed worth and potential.
That any of us manages to create abiding connections across these manufactured divisions is a testament to the beauty of the human spirit. In the early winter of , after leading the Montgomery bus boycott that arose from the arrest of Rosa Parks and before the trials and triumphs to come, the Rev.
Martin Luther King Jr. Gandhi, the father of nonviolent protest. He had long dreamed of going to India, and they stayed for more than a month, welcomed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. King wanted to see for himself the place whose fight for freedom from British rule had inspired his fight for justice in America.
He wanted to see the so-called untouchables, the lowest caste in the ancient Indian caste system, whom he had read of and had sympathy for, and who were left behind after India gained its independence the decade before. He discovered that people in India had been following the trials of his own oppressed people in America, knew of the bus boycott he led. Wherever he went, people on the streets of Bombay and Delhi crowded around him for an autograph. One afternoon, King and his wife journeyed to the southern tip of the country, to the city then known as Trivandrum in the state of Kerala, and visited with high school students whose families had been untouchables.
The principal made the introduction.
Woman in agriculture, and climate risks: hotspots for development
This paper explores the social inclusiveness of agricultural extension services in India. The literature suggests that caste-based social segregation manifests in various spheres of life, and perpetuates economic inequality and oppression. An econometric analysis of nationally-representative data from rural India verifies this with respect to the agricultural sector. Farmers belonging to the socially-marginalized castes are found to have a lower chance of accessing the public extension services, primarily due to their inferior resource-endowment status. There exists significant impact heterogeneity.
Looking at the class and caste differences in access to agricultural credit in India, it is seen that large proportions of farmers are still outside the fold of formal credit. Farmers from smaller farm-size class and socially marginalised castes face difficulty in accessing credit due to lower asset valuations, compounded by social discrimination. There is a need for asset creation and reorientation of the present agricultural credit policy for greater inclusiveness. Credit is an important mediating input for agriculture to improve productivity. The provision of credit is of vital importance in achieving social mobility for the population engaged in agriculture Dantwala In India, around While access to formal credit for the agricultural sector is crucial for its growth, the issue of inclusiveness in terms of class and caste in access to credit is also important.
Our founding ideals promise liberty and equality for all. Our reality is an enduring racial hierarchy that has persisted for centuries. Photo illustration by Chris Burnett. By Isabel Wilkerson. We heard the man on the ground pleading with the man above him, saw the terror in his face, heard his gasps for air, heard the anguished cries of an unseen chorus, begging the lighter man to stop. The man on the ground went silent, drained of breath. A clear liquid crept down the pavement.
India: Issues and Priorities for Agriculture
Tribes, clans, castes, classes have existed around a social organization. When elaborating the Indian society, it is multi-ethnic as well as multi-religious. Read more. Unlike class system, cast system does not allow any person to move from one caste to another. It has accommodated multiple communities by ensuring each of them a monopoly of a specific means of livelihood.
There is rising interest among research and development practitioners to arrive at impact driven solutions in the field of gender and climate change adaptation. Climate change adaptation interventions can be better targeted by being linked with type of climatic risks experienced by women farmers, their social profile and their needs based on the role they play in agriculture. This study presents a methodology to identify hotspots where climate change adaptation and gender based interventions could be prioritized. The methodology is illustrated for India.
Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Download the summary and recommendations in Hindi. Dry toilet: Toilet that does not flush, is not connected to a septic tank or sewage system, and requires daily manual cleaning. Open defecation : Defecation on roads and plots that requires manual disposal.
The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter in minutes. Revising notes in exam days is on of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days. In the previous chapter, we noted that the existence of social diversity does not threaten democracy.
About Honey Bees - Types, Races, and Anatomy
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste. It has origins in ancient India , and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. The caste system as it exists today is thought to be the result of developments during the collapse of the Mughal era and the rise of the British colonial government in India. In , negative discrimination on the basis of caste was banned by law and further enshrined in the Indian constitution ; however, the system continues to be practiced in parts of India. Caste-based differences have also been practised in other regions and religions in the Indian subcontinent like Nepalese Buddhism,  Christianity , Islam , Judaism and Sikhism. New developments took place after India achieved independence , when the policy of caste-based reservation of jobs was formalised with lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Since , the country has enacted many laws and social initiatives to protect and improve the socioeconomic conditions of its lower caste population.
The caste systems in Sri Lanka are social stratification systems found among the ethnic groups of the island since ancient times. The models are similar to those found in Continental India, but are less extensive and important for various reasons, although the caste systems still play an important and at least symbolic role in religion and politics. Sri Lanka is often considered to be a casteless or caste-blind society by Indians. The caste systems of Sri Lanka were historically not tied to the religious establishment but rather a tool to service the ruling elite - a model more reminiscent of feudalism in Europe. A universal welfare system which focused on providing education for everyone regardless of background has provided people from lower caste groups similar opportunities to enter jobs previously only frequented by those in upper caste groups, with younger generations mostly rejecting any pressure to conform to caste-related jobs.
This paper explores the social inclusiveness of agricultural extension services in India. countries continue to have a strikingly low coverage of farmers [3,9,10]. The caste system, an exhaustive and hereditary institution, continues to /files/report//TheSustainableDevelopmentGoalsReportpdf.
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Vaishya , also spelled Vaisya , third highest in ritual status of the four varna s , or social classes, of Hindu India , traditionally described as commoners. Legend states that the varna s or colours sprang from Prajapati , a creator god—in order of status, the Brahman white from his head, the Kshatriya red from his arms, the Vaishya yellow from his thighs, and the Shudra black from his feet. The yellow colour associated with the Vaishyas, according to one theory, links them with the south point of the compass. The Vaishyas were commoners, not servile groups. Their role lay in productive labour, in agricultural and pastoral tasks, and in trading. Their way of life demanded study, sacrifice, and the giving of alms.
To do so, a productive, competitive, diversified and sustainable agricultural sector will need to emerge at an accelerated pace. India is a global agricultural powerhouse. The country has some m ha under cultivation of which some 63 percent are rainfed roughly m ha while 37 percent are irrigated 70m ha. Raising agricultural productivity per unit of land: Raising productivity per unit of land will need to be the main engine of agricultural growth as virtually all cultivable land is farmed. Water resources are also limited and water for irrigation must contend with increasing industrial and urban needs. All measures to increase productivity will need exploiting, amongst them: increasing yields, diversification to higher value crops, and developing value chains to reduce marketing costs. Reducing rural poverty through a socially inclusive strategy that comprises both agriculture as well as non-farm employment: Rural development must also benefit the poor, landless, women, scheduled castes and tribes.
When soil fertility decreases, they burn the remains on the land and move to a fresh patch of land. It is labour-intensive and requires high biochemical inputs. Commercial Farming - Commercial Framing uses high yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Plantation - Plantation is a large tract of land with high capital investment where a single crop is grown. The produce from a plantation is used mostly in industries. In India, there are three cropping seasons:.
Голос шефа из смешливого вдруг стал жестким: - Сьюзан, я звоню потому, что ты нужна мне. Срочно. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями.
Каждую весну, когда частные фирмы начинают охоту за талантливой молодежью, соблазняя ее неприлично высокими окладами и фондовыми опционами в придачу, АНБ внимательно наблюдает за этим, выделяет наиболее подходящих и удваивает предлагаемую сумму. АНБ покупает все, что ему требуется. Дрожа от нетерпения, Сьюзан вылетела в Вашингтон.