File Name: an introduction to piezoelectric materials and applications .zip
Consumer products, automotive electronics, medical technology, and industrial systems are but a few areas where piezoelectric components are indispensable. Besides models to describe and understand the behaviour of piezoelectric materials and components, this book gives an overview of piezoelectric materials, piezoelectric ceramic components and thin films, and the manufacturing thereof. Application areas such as sensors, generators, energy harvesters, actuators, motors and acoustic transducers are addressed.
- Piezoelectric materials and applications
- Introduction to Piezoelectricity
- The Piezoelectric Effect
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials such as crystals , certain ceramics , and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins  in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure and latent heat. The piezoelectric effect results from the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and electrical states in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry.
Piezoelectric materials and applications
Box AD Apeldoorn The Netherlands The cover picture on the front shows a schematic representation of the perovskite structure. The cover picture on the back shows various typical piezoelectric components and products as well as a piezoelectric active lens mount used for active vibration control in microlithography. This book was written as part of the dissemination activities of the SmartPie research program The first chapters of this book have been published in June in a separate book, An Introduction to Piezoelectric Materials and Components. Neither the authors nor the publisher shall be liable for any loss, damage or liability directly or indirectly caused by this book. No part of this work may be reproduced by print, photocopy or any other means without the permission in writing from Stichting Applied Piezo.
Piezo what? The word piezoelectric originates from the Greek word piezein, which literally means to squeeze or press. Piezoelectricity is found in a ton of everyday electronic devices, from quartz watches to speakers and microphones. In a nutshell:. Piezoelectricity is the process of using crystals to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, or vice versa. Regular crystals are defined by their organized and repeating structure of atoms that are held together by bonds, this is called a unit cell.
Piezoelectricity is a property of certain dielectric materials to physically deform in the presence of an electric field, or conversely, to produce an electrical charge when mechanically deformed. There are a wide variety of materials which exhibit this phenomenon to some degree, including natural quartz crystals, semi-crystalline polyvinylidene polymer, polycrystalline piezoceramic, bone and even wood. Piezoelectricity is due to the spontaneous separation of charge with certain crystal structures under the right conditions. This phenomenon, referred to as spontaneous polarization , is caused by a displacement of the electron clouds relative to their individual atomic centers, i. Such a situation produces an electric dipole. Polycrystalline ceramic, one of the most active piezoelectric materials known, is composed of randomly oriented minute crystallites. The overall effect of randomly oriented polar domains is an initial lack of piezoelectric behavior.
Introduction to Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectric Effect is the ability of certain materials to generate an electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress. One of the unique characteristics of the piezoelectric effect is that it is reversible, meaning that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect the generation of electricity when stress is applied also exhibit the converse piezoelectric effect the generation of stress when an electric field is applied. When piezoelectric material is placed under mechanical stress, a shifting of the positive and negative charge centers in the material takes place, which then results in an external electrical field. When reversed, an outer electrical field either stretches or compresses the piezoelectric material.
This chapter describes the history and development strategy of piezoelectric materials for medical applications. It covers the piezoelectric properties of materials found inside the human body including blood vessels, skin, and bones as well as how the piezoelectricity innate in those materials aids in disease treatment. It also covers piezoelectric materials and their use in medical implants by explaining how piezoelectric materials can be used as sensors and can emulate natural materials.
The Piezoelectric Effect
Advanced Mechanics of Piezoelectricity pp Cite as. This chapter provides a basic introduction to piezoelectricity. It begins with a discussion of background and applications of piezoelectric materials. We then present the linear theory of piezoelectricity, functionally graded piezoelectric materials FGPM , and fundamental knowledge of fibrous piezoelectric composites FPC.
В его голосе слышалось беспокойство. - Быть может, Хейл был прав, говоря, что система резервного питания подает недостаточное количество фреона. - А как же автоматическое отключение. Стратмор задумался. - Должно быть, где-то замыкание.
На военную информацию. Тайные операции. Джабба покачал головой и бросил взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему была где-то далеко, потом посмотрел в глаза директору.