File Name: introduction to glass science and technology .zip
- Introduction to Glass Science and Technology
- Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses
- introduction to science, technology and society pdf
- Advances in Glass Science and Technology
In this book, some recent advances in glass science and technology are collected. In the first part, the structure and crystallization of innovative glass compositions are analysed. In the second part, innovative applications are described from the use of glass in optical devices and lasers to fibres in composites, micropatterned components in sensors and microdevices, beads in building walls and In the second part, innovative applications are described from the use of glass in optical devices and lasers to fibres in composites, micropatterned components in sensors and microdevices, beads in building walls and sealing in solid oxide fuel cells.
Introduction to Glass Science and Technology
Glass is a non- crystalline , often transparent amorphous solid , that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware , and optics. Glass is most often formed by rapid cooling quenching of the molten form; some glasses such as volcanic glass are naturally occurring. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica silicon dioxide, or quartz , the primary constituent of sand.
The term glass , in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, although silica-free glasses often have desirable properties for applications in modern communications technology.
Some objects, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses , are so commonly made of silicate-based glass that they are simply called by the name of the material. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures.
Archaeological evidence suggests glass-making dates back to at least 3, BC in Mesopotamia , Egypt , or Syria. The earliest known glass objects were beads , perhaps created accidentally during metalworking or the production of faience. Due to its ease of formability into any shape, glass has been traditionally used for vessels, such as bowls , vases , bottles , jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms, it has also been used for paperweights and marbles.
Glass can be coloured by adding metal salts or painted and printed with vitreous enamels , leading to its use in stained glass windows and other glass art objects. The refractive , reflective and transmission properties of glass make glass suitable for manufacturing optical lenses , prisms , and optoelectronics materials. Extruded glass fibres have application as optical fibres in communications networks, thermal insulating material when matted as glass wool so as to trap air, or in glass-fibre reinforced plastic fibreglass.
The standard definition of a glass or vitreous solid is a solid formed by rapid melt quenching. Glass is an amorphous solid. Although the atomic-scale structure of glass shares characteristics of the structure of a supercooled liquid , glass exhibits all the mechanical properties of a solid.
Due to chemical bonding constraints, glasses do possess a high degree of short-range order with respect to local atomic polyhedra. Laboratory measurements of room temperature glass flow do show a motion consistent with a material viscosity on the order of 10 17 —10 18 Pa s. What is the nature of the transition between a fluid or regular solid and a glassy phase? Anderson . For melt quenching, if the cooling is sufficiently rapid relative to the characteristic crystallization time then crystallization is prevented and instead the disordered atomic configuration of the supercooled liquid is frozen into the solid state at T g.
The tendency for a material to form a glass while quenched is called glass-forming ability. This ability can be predicted by the rigidity theory. Glass is sometimes considered to be a liquid due to its lack of a first-order phase transition   where certain thermodynamic variables such as volume , entropy and enthalpy are discontinuous through the glass transition range. The glass transition may be described as analogous to a second-order phase transition where the intensive thermodynamic variables such as the thermal expansivity and heat capacity are discontinuous.
Glass can form naturally from volcanic magma. Obsidian is a common volcanic glass with high silica SiO2 content formed when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly. Moldavite , a natural glass formed by meteorite impact, from Besednice , Bohemia.
Trinitite , a glass made by the Trinity nuclear-weapon test. Naturally occurring obsidian glass was used by Stone Age societies as it fractures along very sharp edges, making it ideal for cutting tools and weapons. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking centre at Trier located in current-day Germany , that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent , lustrous substance. In post-classical West Africa, Benin was a manufacturer of glass and glass beads.
Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites. By the 14th-century, architects were designing buildings with walls of stained glass such as Sainte-Chapelle , Paris, — and the East end of Gloucester Cathedral.
With the change in architectural style during the Renaissance period in Europe, the use of large stained glass windows became much less prevalent,  although stained glass had a major revival with Gothic Revival architecture in the 19th century. During the 13th century, the island of Murano , Venice , became a centre for glass making, building on medieval techniques to produce colourful ornamental pieces in large quantities. By the 17th century, glass was also being produced in England in the Venetian tradition.
In around , George Ravenscroft invented lead crystal glass, with cut glass becoming fashionable in the 18th century. Throughout the 20th century, new mass production techniques led to the widespread availability and utility for bulk glass and its increased use as a building material and new applications of glass.
This reduced manufacturing costs and, combined with a wider use of coloured glass, led to cheap glassware in the s, which later became known as Depression glass. In the 21st century, glass manufacturers have developed different brands of chemically strengthened glass for widespread application in touchscreens for smartphones , tablet computers , and many other types of information appliances.
Glass is in widespread use in optical systems due to its ability to refract, reflect, and transmit light following geometrical optics. The most common and oldest applications of glass in optics are as lenses , windows , mirrors , and prisms. Glass transparency results from the absence of grain boundaries which diffusely scatter light in polycrystalline materials. In the manufacturing process, glasses can be poured, formed, extruded and moulded into forms ranging from flat sheets to highly intricate shapes.
Glasses containing a high proportion of alkali or alkaline earth elements are more susceptible to corrosion than other glass compositions.
The density of glass varies with chemical composition with values ranging from 2. The observation that old windows are sometimes found to be thicker at the bottom than at the top is often offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a timescale of centuries, the assumption being that the glass has exhibited the liquid property of flowing from one shape to another.
Instead, glass manufacturing processes in the past produced sheets of non-uniform thickness leading to observed sagging and ripples in old windows. Silicon dioxide SiO 2 is a common fundamental constituent of glass. Fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure silica.
It is also transparent to a wider spectral range than ordinary glass, extending from the visible further into both the UV and IR ranges, and is sometimes used where transparency to these wavelengths is necessary. Fused quartz is used for high-temperature applications such as furnace tubes, lighting tubes, melting crucibles, etc. Therefore, normally, other substances fluxes are added to lower the melting temperature and simplify glass processing.
Sodium carbonate Na 2 CO 3 , "soda" is a common additive and acts to lowers the glass-transition temperature. However, Sodium silicate is water-soluble, so lime CaO, calcium oxide , generally obtained from limestone , some magnesium oxide MgO and aluminium oxide Al 2 O 3 are other common components added to improve chemical durability.
Borosilicate glasses e. They are, therefore, less subject to stress caused by thermal expansion and thus less vulnerable to cracking from thermal shock. They are commonly used for e.
The addition of lead II oxide into silicate glass lowers melting point and viscosity of the melt. However, lead glass cannot withstand high temperatures well. The viscosity decrease of lead glass melt is very significant roughly times in comparison with soda glass ; this allows easier removal of bubbles and working at lower temperatures, hence its frequent use as an additive in vitreous enamels and glass solders.
Aluminosilicate glass tends to be more difficult to melt and shape compared to borosilicate compositions, but has excellent thermal resistance and durability. The addition of barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eyeglasses.
Fluorine is highly electronegative and lowers the polarizability of the material. Fluoride silicate glasses are used in manufacture of integrated circuits as an insulator. Glass-ceramic materials contain both non-crystalline glass and crystalline ceramic phases. They are formed by controlled nucleation and partial crystallisation of a base glass by heat treatment.
Glass-ceramics exhibit advantageous thermal, chemical, biological, and dielectric properties as compared to metals or organic polymers.
The most commercially important property of glass-ceramics is their imperviousness to thermal shock. Thus, glass-ceramics have become extremely useful for countertop cooking and industrial processes.
The negative thermal expansion coefficient CTE of the crystalline ceramic phase can be balanced with the positive CTE of the glassy phase. Fibreglass also called glass fibre reinforced plastic, GRP is a composite material made by reinforcing a plastic resin with glass fibres.
It is made by melting glass and stretching the glass into fibres. These fibres are woven together into a cloth and left to set in a plastic resin. Uses of fibreglass include building and construction materials, boat hulls, car body parts, and aerospace composite materials. Glass-fibre wool is an excellent thermal and sound insulation material, commonly used in buildings e. The fibres are bonded with an adhesive spray and the resulting wool mat is cut and packed in rolls or panels.
Besides common silica-based glasses many other inorganic and organic materials may also form glasses, including metals , aluminates , phosphates , borates , chalcogenides , fluorides , germanates glasses based on GeO 2 , tellurites glasses based on TeO 2 , antimonates glasses based on Sb 2 O 3 , arsenates glasses based on As 2 O 3 , titanates glasses based on TiO 2 , tantalates glasses based on Ta 2 O 5 , nitrates , carbonates , plastics , acrylic , and many other substances.
Germanium dioxide GeO 2 , Germania , in many respects a structural analogue of silica, fluoride , aluminate , phosphate , borate , and chalcogenide glasses have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre-optic waveguides in communication networks and other specialized technological applications. Silica-free glasses may often have poor glass forming tendencies. Novel techniques, including containerless processing by aerodynamic levitation cooling the melt whilst it floats on a gas stream or splat quenching pressing the melt between two metal anvils or rollers , may be used increase cooling rate, or reduce crystal nucleation triggers.
In the past, small batches of amorphous metals with high surface area configurations ribbons, wires, films, etc. Amorphous metal wires have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk. More recently a number of alloys have been produced in layers with thickness exceeding 1 millimeter. These are known as bulk metallic glasses BMG. Liquidmetal Technologies sell a number of zirconium-based BMGs.
Batches of amorphous steel have also been produced that demonstrate mechanical properties far exceeding those found in conventional steel alloys. Experimental evidence indicates that the system Al-Fe-Si may undergo a first-order transition to an amorphous form dubbed "q-glass" on rapid cooling from the melt.
Transmission electron microscopy TEM images indicate that q-glass nucleates from the melt as discrete particles with a uniform spherical growth in all directions. While x-ray diffraction reveals the isotropic nature of q-glass, a nucleation barrier exists implying an interfacial discontinuity or internal surface between the glass and melt phases.
Important polymer glasses include amorphous and glassy pharmaceutical compounds. These are useful because the solubility of the compound is greatly increased when it is amorphous compared to the same crystalline composition.
Many emerging pharmaceuticals are practically insoluble in their crystalline forms. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear , polymer glasses acrylic glass , polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate are a lighter alternative to traditional glass.
Molecular liquids, electrolytes , molten salts , and aqueous solutions are mixtures of different molecules or ions that do not form a covalent network but interact only through weak van der Waals forces or through transient hydrogen bonds. In a mixture of three or more ionic species of dissimilar size and shape, crystallization can be so difficult that the liquid can easily be supercooled into a glass.
Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses
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introduction to science, technology and society pdf
Glass is a non- crystalline , often transparent amorphous solid , that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware , and optics. Glass is most often formed by rapid cooling quenching of the molten form; some glasses such as volcanic glass are naturally occurring. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica silicon dioxide, or quartz , the primary constituent of sand. The term glass , in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, although silica-free glasses often have desirable properties for applications in modern communications technology. Some objects, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses , are so commonly made of silicate-based glass that they are simply called by the name of the material.
The published report was ordered by the House of Lords to be printed 23 February The authors present complex issues in an accessible and engaging form. The importance of science and technology in our modern world cannot be overstated.
Li erco f or m ns s Tra nge.
Advances in Glass Science and Technology
By James E Shelby. The presence of glasses in our everyday environment is so common that we rarely notice their existence. Our current casual attitude toward the family of materials known as glasses has not always existed. Early Egyptians considered glasses as precious materials, as evidenced by the glass beads found in the tombs and golden death masks of ancient Pharaohs. The cave-dwellers of even earlier times relied on chipped pieces of obsidian, a natural volcanic glass, for tools and weapons, i. Humans have been producing glasses by melting of raw materials for thousands of years. Egyptian glasses date from at least B.
Introduction to Glass Science and Technology presents the fundamental topics in glass science and technology including glass formation, crystallisation and phase separation. A detailed discussion of glass structure models with emphasis on the oxygen balance model is also presented. Additional chapters discuss the most important properties of glasses, including physical, optical, electrical, chemical and mechanical properties, and new to this edition, water in glasses and melts. Glass technology is addressed in chapters dealing with the details of glass raw materials, melting and fining, and commercial glass production methods.
Scientific study attempts to explore and understand the working of the physical world. Science and technology research in nanotechnology promises breakthroughs in areas such as materials and man-ufacturing, nanoelectronics, medicine and healthcare, energy, biotechnology, information technology, and na-tional security. Does it matter? Its roots lie in the interwar period and continue into the start of the Cold War, when historians and sociologists of science, and scientists themselves, became interested in the relationship between scientific knowledge, technological systems, and society. Students choose four optional modules from Science, Technology and Society.
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Presenting the fundamental topics in glass science and technology, this concise introduction includes glass formation, crystallization, and phase separation. Glass structure models, with emphasis on the oxygen balance method, are presented in detail. Several chapters discuss the viscosity, density, thermal expansion, and mechanical properties of glasses as well as their optical and magnetic behavior and the diffusion of ions, atoms, and molecules and their effect on electrical conductivity, chemical durability, and other related behavior. In addition to the effects of atomic structure on the properties of glasses, the effects of phase separation, crystallization, and water content, which are neglected in most texts, are discussed extensively.
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