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- A Brief History of Mechanical Engineering
- The History of Concrete
- State of the art
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Using a range of methods and techniques, some new to archaeology, Ortloff analyzes various ancient water systems such as agricultural field system designs known in ancient Peruvian and Bolivian Andean societies, water management at Nabataean Petra, the Roman Pont du Garde water distribution castellum, the Minoan site of Knossos and the water systems of dynastic and modern China, particularly the Grand Canal and early water systems designed to control flood episodes. Serving to highlight the engineering science behind water structures of the ancient World Heritage sites discussed, this book will be of interest to archaeologists working on landscape archaeology, urbanism, agriculture and water management.
The state of the art sometimes cutting edge or leading edge refers to the highest level of general development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a particular time. However, in some contexts it can also refer to a level of development reached at any particular time as a result of the common methodologies employed at the time. The term has been used since , and has become both a common term in advertising and marketing , and a legally significant phrase with respect to both patent law and tort liability. In advertising, the phrase is often used to convey that a product is made with the best or latest available technology, but it has been noted that "the term 'state-of-the-art' requires little proof on the part of advertisers", as it is considered mere puffery.
A Brief History of Mechanical Engineering
Lime also refers to crushed, burned limestone. When sand and water were added to these cements, they became mortar, which was a plaster-like material used to adhere stones to each other. Over thousands of years, these materials were improved upon, combined with other materials and, ultimately, morphed into modern concrete.
Admixtures are chemicals added to the concrete mix to control its setting properties and are used primarily when placing concrete during environmental extremes, such as high or low temperatures, windy conditions, etc.
The precursor to concrete was invented in about BC when Middle Eastern builders found that when they coated the outsides of their pounded-clay fortresses and home walls with a thin, damp coating of burned limestone, it reacted chemically with gases in the air to form a hard, protective surface. Early cementicious composite materials typically included mortar-crushed, burned limestone, sand and water, which was used for building with stone, as opposed to casting the material in a mold, which is essentially how modern concrete is used, with the mold being the concrete forms.
As one of the key constituents of modern concrete, cement has been around for a long time. About 12 million years ago in what is now Israel, natural deposits were formed by reactions between limestone and oil shale that were produced by spontaneous combustion.
However, cement is not concrete. Concrete is a composite building material and the ingredients, of which cement is just one, have changed over time and are changing even now. The performance characteristics can change according to the different forces that the concrete will need to resist. These forces may be gradual or intense, they may come from above gravity , below soil heaving , the sides lateral loads , or they might take the form of erosion, abrasion or chemical attack.
The ingredients of concrete and their proportions are called the design mix. The first concrete-like structures were built by the Nabataea traders or Bedouins who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan in around BC.
They later discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime -- that is, cement that hardens underwater -- and by BC, they were building kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, and underground waterproof cisterns. The cisterns were kept secret and were one of the reasons the Nabataea were able to thrive in the desert. In making concrete, the Nabataea understood the need to keep the mix as dry or low-slump as possible, as excess water introduces voids and weaknesses into the concrete.
Their building practices included tamping the freshly placed concrete with special tools. The tamping process produced more gel, which is the bonding material produced by the chemical reactions that take place during hydration which bond the particulates and aggregate together. Like the Romans had years later, the Nabataea had a locally available material that could be used to make their cement waterproof.
Within their territory were major surface deposits of fine silica sand. Groundwater seeping through silica can transform it into a pozzolan material, which is a sandy volcanic ash. To make cement, the Nabataea located the deposits and scooped up this material and combined it with lime, then heated it in the same kilns they used to make their pottery, since the target temperatures lay within the same range.
By about BC along the Danube River in the area of the former country of Yugoslavia, homes were built using a type of concrete for floors.
Around BC, the ancient Egyptians used mud mixed with straw to form bricks. Mud with straw is more similar to adobe than concrete. However, they also used gypsum and lime mortars in building the pyramids, although most of us think of mortar and concrete as two different materials. The Great Pyramid at Giza required about , tons of mortar, which was used as a bedding material for the casing stones that formed the visible surface of the finished pyramid.
About this same time, the northern Chinese used a form of cement in boat-building and in building the Great Wall. Spectrometer testing has confirmed that a key ingredient in the mortar used in the Great Wall and other ancient Chinese structures was glutenous, sticky rice.
Some of these structures have withstood the test of time and have resisted even modern efforts at demolition. By BC, the Greeks had discovered a natural pozzolan material that developed hydraulic properties when mixed with lime, but the Greeks were nowhere near as prolific in building with concrete as the Romans. It was not a plastic, flowing material poured into forms, but more like cemented rubble. The Romans built most of their structures by stacking stones of different sizes and hand-filling the spaces between the stones with mortar.
Above ground, walls were clad both inside and out with clay bricks that also served as forms for the concrete. The brick had little or no structural value and their use was mainly cosmetic. True chemical hydration did not take place. These mortars were weak. For marine structures and those exposed to fresh water, such as bridges, docks, storm drains and aqueducts, they used a volcanic sand called pozzuolana.
These two materials probably represent the first large-scale use of a truly cementicious binding agent. Pozzuolana and harena fossicia react chemically with lime and water to hydrate and solidify into a rock-like mass that can be used underwater. The Romans also used these materials to build large structures, such as the Roman Baths, the Pantheon, and the Colosseum, and these structures still stand today.
As admixtures, they used animal fat, milk and blood -- materials that reflect very rudimentary methods. On the other hand, in addition to using natural pozzolans, the Romans learned to manufacture two types of artificial pozzolans -- calcined kaolinitic clay and calcined volcanic stones -- which, along with the Romans' spectacular building accomplishments, are evidence of a high level of technical sophistication for that time. Built by Rome's Emperor Hadrian and completed in AD, the Pantheon has the largest un-reinforced concrete dome ever built.
The dome is feet in diameter and has a foot hole, called an oculus, at its peak, which is feet above the floor. It was built in place, probably by starting above the outside walls and building up increasingly thin layers while working toward the center. The Pantheon has exterior foundation walls that are 26 feet wide and 15 feet deep and made of pozzolana cement lime, reactive volcanic sand and water tamped down over a layer of dense stone aggregate.
That the dome still exists is something of a fluke. Settling and movement over almost 2, years, along with occasional earthquakes, have created cracks that would normally have weakened the structure enough that, by now, it should have fallen.
The exterior walls that support the dome contain seven evenly spaced niches with chambers between them that extend to the outside. These niches and chambers, originally designed only to minimize the weight of the structure, are thinner than the main portions of the walls and act as control joints that control crack locations.
Stresses caused by movement are relieved by cracking in the niches and chambers. This means that the dome is essentially supported by 16 thick, structurally sound concrete pillars formed by the portions of the exterior walls between the niches and chambers. Another method to save weight was the use of very heavy aggregates low in the structure, and the use of lighter, less dense aggregates, such as pumice, high in the walls and in the dome. The walls also taper in thickness to reduce the weight higher up.
Another secret to the success of the Romans was their use of trade guilds. Each trade had a guild whose members were responsible for passing their knowledge of materials, techniques and tools to apprentices and to the Roman Legions. In addition to fighting, the legions were trained to be self-sufficient, so they were also trained in construction methods and engineering. During the Middle Ages, concrete technology crept backward. After the fall of the Roman Empire in AD, the techniques for making pozzolan cement were lost until the discovery in of manuscripts describing those techniques rekindled interest in building with concrete.
He used limestone containing clay that was fired until it turned into clinker, which was then ground it into powder. He used this material in the historic rebuilding of the Eddystone Lighthouse in Cornwall, England. Finally, in , an Englishman named Joseph Aspdin invented Portland cement by burning finely ground chalk and clay in a kiln until the carbon dioxide was removed.
During vitrification, materials become glass-like. Aspdin refined his method by carefully proportioning limestone and clay, pulverizing them, and then burning the mixture into clinker, which was then ground into finished cement. Before Portland cement was discovered, and for some years afterward, large quantities of natural cement were used, which were produced by burning a naturally occurring mixture of lime and clay. Because the ingredients of natural cement are mixed by nature, its properties vary widely.
Modern Portland cement is manufactured to detailed standards. Some of the many compounds found in it are important to the hydration process and the chemical characteristics of cement. Eventually, the mix forms a clinker, which is then ground into powder. A small proportion of gypsum is added to slow the rate of hydration and keep the concrete workable longer. Between and , systematic tests to determine the compressive and tensile strength of cement were first performed, along with the first accurate chemical analyses.
In the early days of Portland cement production, kilns were vertical and stationary. In , an English engineer developed a more efficient kiln that was horizontal, slightly tilted, and could rotate. The rotary kiln provided better temperature control and did a better job of mixing materials. By , rotary kilns dominated the market. In , Thomas Edison received a patent for the first long kiln. This was about 70 feet longer than the kilns in use at the time.
Industrial kilns today may be as long as feet. Although there were exceptions, during the 19 th century, concrete was used mainly for industrial buildings. It was considered socially unacceptable as a building material for aesthetic reasons. The first widespread use of Portland cement in home construction was in England and France between and by Frenchman Francois Coignet, who added steel rods to prevent the exterior walls from spreading, and later used them as flexural elements.
Wilkinson in In , American mechanical engineer William Ward completed the first reinforced concrete home in the U. It still stands in Port Chester, New York. Ward was diligent in maintaining construction records, so a great deal is known about this home. In , George Bartholomew poured the first concrete street in the U. The concrete used for this street tested at about 8, psi, which is about twice the strength of modern concrete used in residential construction.
Court Street in Bellefontaine, Ohio, which is the oldest concrete street in the U. Although in cement manufacturers were using more than 90 different formulas, by , basic testing -- if not manufacturing methods -- had become standardized.
During the late 19 th century, the use of steel-reinforced concrete was being developed more or less simultaneously by a German, G. Ransome started building with steel-reinforced concrete in and patented a system that used twisted square rods to improve the bond between steel and concrete. Most of the structures he built were industrial. Hennebique started building steel-reinforced homes in France in the late s.
He received patents in France and Belgium for his system and was highly successful, eventually building an empire by selling franchises in large cities. He promoted his method by lecturing at conferences and developing his own company standards. As did Ransome, most of the structures Hennebique built were industrial.
In , Wayss bought the rights to a system patented by a Frenchman named Monier, who started out using steel to reinforce concrete flower pots and planting containers.
The History of Concrete
Lime also refers to crushed, burned limestone. When sand and water were added to these cements, they became mortar, which was a plaster-like material used to adhere stones to each other. Over thousands of years, these materials were improved upon, combined with other materials and, ultimately, morphed into modern concrete. Admixtures are chemicals added to the concrete mix to control its setting properties and are used primarily when placing concrete during environmental extremes, such as high or low temperatures, windy conditions, etc. The precursor to concrete was invented in about BC when Middle Eastern builders found that when they coated the outsides of their pounded-clay fortresses and home walls with a thin, damp coating of burned limestone, it reacted chemically with gases in the air to form a hard, protective surface. Early cementicious composite materials typically included mortar-crushed, burned limestone, sand and water, which was used for building with stone, as opposed to casting the material in a mold, which is essentially how modern concrete is used, with the mold being the concrete forms. As one of the key constituents of modern concrete, cement has been around for a long time.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. I nformation technology IT as a medium for the work of artists and designers is discussed in Chapter 3 , which points out that there are many ways for computer science CS to support new tools and applications for the arts and design disciplines, in service to cutting-edge and more mainstream practitioners alike. These tools and applications offer the potential for beneficial developments in information technology and creative practices ITCP. But there are further, more profound implications of the intersection between IT and the arts and design, and these are the focus of this chapter, which views art and design practices as forms of CS research and development. This perspective on CS is more subtle, more challenging, and more fundamental than the tools orientation of Chapter 3.
History of Engineering and Technology: Artful Methods book cover Examining important areas of engineering and technology, this second edition contains.
State of the art
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History of Engineering and Technology provides an illustrated history of engineered technology from the Stone Age to the Nuclear Age. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Condition: New. New Book.
A History of Engineering and Technology offers a highly readable account of the development of engineering and technology from prehistory to.
Вы сами это знаете. Он никогда не оставил бы жучков в своей программе. - Их слишком много! - воскликнула Соши, выхватив распечатку из рук Джаббы и сунув ее под нос Сьюзан.
Вы хотите дать взятку представителю закона? - зарычал. - Нет, конечно. Я просто подумал… - Толстяк быстро убрал бумажник.
Беккер грохнулся на пол возле двери. Мостовая стремительно убегала назад в нескольких дюймах внизу. Он окончательно протрезвел.
- Мы нашли Северную Дакоту. Вызовите службу безопасности. И давайте выбираться отсюда.
После вас, Сью, - сказал. ГЛАВА 41 В кладовке третьего этажа отеля Альфонсо XIII на полу без сознания лежала горничная. Человек в очках в железной оправе положил в карман ее халата связку ключей.