File Name: prevention and control of corrosion .zip
Corrosion is when a refined metal is naturally converted to a more stable form such as its oxide, hydroxide or sulphide state this leads to deterioration of the material. Metal corrodes when it reacts with another substance such as oxygen, hydrogen, an electrical current or even dirt and bacteria. Corrosion can also happen when metals like steel are placed under too much stress causing the material to crack.
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- We apologize for the inconvenience...
- What is Corrosion? - Definition and Prevention
- Some aspects of corrosion research
Corrosion and Protection pp Cite as. Application of coatings The choice between these possibilities is usually based upon economic considerations, but in many cases aspects such as appearance, environment and safety must also be taken care of. Two or more of the five principles are commonly used at the same time.
Corrosion is a galvanic process by which metals deteriorate through oxidation—usually but not always to their oxides. For example, when exposed to air, iron rusts, silver tarnishes, and copper and brass acquire a bluish-green surface called a patina. Of the various metals subject to corrosion, iron is by far the most important commercially. Consequently, the development of methods for protecting metal surfaces from corrosion constitutes a very active area of industrial research.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide , hydroxide , or sulfide.
Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and preventing corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulfates. Rusting , the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide s or salt s of the original metal and results in a distinctive orange colouration.
Corrosion can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers , although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common. Corrosion degrades the useful properties of materials and structures including strength, appearance and permeability to liquids and gases. Many structural alloys corrode merely from exposure to moisture in air, but the process can be strongly affected by exposure to certain substances.
Corrosion can be concentrated locally to form a pit or crack, or it can extend across a wide area more or less uniformly corroding the surface. Because corrosion is a diffusion-controlled process, it occurs on exposed surfaces.
As a result, methods to reduce the activity of the exposed surface, such as passivation and chromate conversion , can increase a material's corrosion resistance.
However, some corrosion mechanisms are less visible and less predictable. The chemistry of corrosion is quite complex but it may be considered essentially as an electrochemical phenomenon. During corrosion at a particular spot on the surface of the object made of iron, oxidation takes place and that spot behaves as an anode.
Hydrogen ion in water may also be available due to dissolution of other acidic oxides from the atmosphere. This spot behaves as a cathode. Galvanic corrosion occurs when two different metals have physical or electrical contact with each other and are immersed in a common electrolyte , or when the same metal is exposed to electrolyte with different concentrations.
In a galvanic couple , the more active metal the anode corrodes at an accelerated rate and the more noble metal the cathode corrodes at a slower rate. When immersed separately, each metal corrodes at its own rate. What type of metal s to use is readily determined by following the galvanic series. For example, zinc is often used as a sacrificial anode for steel structures. Galvanic corrosion is of major interest to the marine industry and also anywhere water containing salts contacts pipes or metal structures.
Factors such as relative size of anode , types of metal, and operating conditions temperature , humidity , salinity , etc. The surface area ratio of the anode and cathode directly affects the corrosion rates of the materials. Galvanic corrosion is often prevented by the use of sacrificial anodes. In any given environment one standard medium is aerated, room-temperature seawater , one metal will be either more noble or more active than others, based on how strongly its ions are bound to the surface.
Two metals in electrical contact share the same electrons, so that the "tug-of-war" at each surface is analogous to competition for free electrons between the two materials. Using the electrolyte as a host for the flow of ions in the same direction, the noble metal will take electrons from the active one. The resulting mass flow or electric current can be measured to establish a hierarchy of materials in the medium of interest.
This hierarchy is called a galvanic series and is useful in predicting and understanding corrosion. Often it is possible to chemically remove the products of corrosion.
For example, phosphoric acid in the form of naval jelly is often applied to ferrous tools or surfaces to remove rust. Corrosion removal should not be confused with electropolishing , which removes some layers of the underlying metal to make a smooth surface.
For example, phosphoric acid may also be used to electropolish copper but it does this by removing copper, not the products of copper corrosion. Some metals are more intrinsically resistant to corrosion than others for some examples, see galvanic series.
There are various ways of protecting metals from corrosion oxidation including painting, hot dip galvanizing , cathodic protection, and combinations of these.
The materials most resistant to corrosion are those for which corrosion is thermodynamically unfavorable. Any corrosion products of gold or platinum tend to decompose spontaneously into pure metal, which is why these elements can be found in metallic form on Earth and have long been valued. More common "base" metals can only be protected by more temporary means. Some metals have naturally slow reaction kinetics , even though their corrosion is thermodynamically favorable.
These include such metals as zinc , magnesium , and cadmium. While corrosion of these metals is continuous and ongoing, it happens at an acceptably slow rate. An extreme example is graphite , which releases large amounts of energy upon oxidation , but has such slow kinetics that it is effectively immune to electrochemical corrosion under normal conditions. Passivation refers to the spontaneous formation of an ultrathin film of corrosion products, known as a passive film, on the metal's surface that act as a barrier to further oxidation.
The chemical composition and microstructure of a passive film are different from the underlying metal. Typical passive film thickness on aluminium, stainless steels, and alloys is within 10 nanometers. The passive film is different from oxide layers that are formed upon heating and are in the micrometer thickness range — the passive film recovers if removed or damaged whereas the oxide layer does not. Passivation in natural environments such as air, water and soil at moderate pH is seen in such materials as aluminium , stainless steel , titanium , and silicon.
Passivation is primarily determined by metallurgical and environmental factors. The effect of pH is summarized using Pourbaix diagrams , but many other factors are influential. Some conditions that inhibit passivation include high pH for aluminium and zinc, low pH or the presence of chloride ions for stainless steel, high temperature for titanium in which case the oxide dissolves into the metal, rather than the electrolyte and fluoride ions for silicon.
On the other hand, unusual conditions may result in passivation of materials that are normally unprotected, as the alkaline environment of concrete does for steel rebar. Exposure to a liquid metal such as mercury or hot solder can often circumvent passivation mechanisms.
Passivation is extremely useful in mitigating corrosion damage, however even a high-quality alloy will corrode if its ability to form a passivating film is hindered. Proper selection of the right grade of material for the specific environment is important for the long-lasting performance of this group of materials. If breakdown occurs in the passive film due to chemical or mechanical factors, the resulting major modes of corrosion may include pitting corrosion , crevice corrosion , and stress corrosion cracking.
Certain conditions, such as low concentrations of oxygen or high concentrations of species such as chloride which compete as anions , can interfere with a given alloy's ability to re-form a passivating film. In the worst case, almost all of the surface will remain protected, but tiny local fluctuations will degrade the oxide film in a few critical points. Corrosion at these points will be greatly amplified, and can cause corrosion pits of several types, depending upon conditions.
While the corrosion pits only nucleate under fairly extreme circumstances, they can continue to grow even when conditions return to normal, since the interior of a pit is naturally deprived of oxygen and locally the pH decreases to very low values and the corrosion rate increases due to an autocatalytic process. In extreme cases, the sharp tips of extremely long and narrow corrosion pits can cause stress concentration to the point that otherwise tough alloys can shatter; a thin film pierced by an invisibly small hole can hide a thumb sized pit from view.
These problems are especially dangerous because they are difficult to detect before a part or structure fails. Pitting remains among the most common and damaging forms of corrosion in passivated alloys, [ citation needed ] but it can be prevented by control of the alloy's environment. Pitting results when a small hole, or cavity, forms in the metal, usually as a result of de-passivation of a small area.
This area becomes anodic, while part of the remaining metal becomes cathodic, producing a localized galvanic reaction. The deterioration of this small area penetrates the metal and can lead to failure. This form of corrosion is often difficult to detect due to the fact that it is usually relatively small and may be covered and hidden by corrosion-produced compounds.
Stainless steel can pose special corrosion challenges, since its passivating behavior relies on the presence of a major alloying component chromium , at least Because of the elevated temperatures of welding and heat treatment, chromium carbides can form in the grain boundaries of stainless alloys.
This chemical reaction robs the material of chromium in the zone near the grain boundary, making those areas much less resistant to corrosion.
This creates a galvanic couple with the well-protected alloy nearby, which leads to "weld decay" corrosion of the grain boundaries in the heat affected zones in highly corrosive environments. This process can seriously reduce the mechanical strength of welded joints over time. A stainless steel is said to be "sensitized" if chromium carbides are formed in the microstructure. A typical microstructure of a normalized type stainless steel shows no signs of sensitization, while a heavily sensitized steel shows the presence of grain boundary precipitates.
The dark lines in the sensitized microstructure are networks of chromium carbides formed along the grain boundaries. Special alloys, either with low carbon content or with added carbon " getters " such as titanium and niobium in types and , respectively , can prevent this effect, but the latter require special heat treatment after welding to prevent the similar phenomenon of "knifeline attack". As its name implies, corrosion is limited to a very narrow zone adjacent to the weld, often only a few micrometers across, making it even less noticeable.
Crevice corrosion is a localized form of corrosion occurring in confined spaces crevices , to which the access of the working fluid from the environment is limited. Formation of a differential aeration cell leads to corrosion inside the crevices. Examples of crevices are gaps and contact areas between parts, under gaskets or seals, inside cracks and seams, spaces filled with deposits and under sludge piles. Crevice corrosion is influenced by the crevice type metal-metal, metal-nonmetal , crevice geometry size, surface finish , and metallurgical and environmental factors.
The susceptibility to crevice corrosion can be evaluated with ASTM standard procedures. A critical crevice corrosion temperature is commonly used to rank a material's resistance to crevice corrosion. In the chemical industry , hydrogen grooving is the corrosion of piping by grooves created by the interaction of a corrosive agent, corroded pipe constituents, and hydrogen gas bubbles. The iron sulfate coating will protect the steel from further reaction; however, if hydrogen bubbles contact this coating, it will be removed.
Thus, a groove will be formed by a traveling bubble, exposing more steel to the acid: a vicious cycle. The grooving is exacerbated by the tendency of subsequent bubbles to follow the same path. High-temperature corrosion is chemical deterioration of a material typically a metal as a result of heating.
This non-galvanic form of corrosion can occur when a metal is subjected to a hot atmosphere containing oxygen, sulfur, or other compounds capable of oxidizing or assisting the oxidation of the material concerned. For example, materials used in aerospace, power generation and even in car engines have to resist sustained periods at high temperature in which they may be exposed to an atmosphere containing potentially highly corrosive products of combustion.
The products of high-temperature corrosion can potentially be turned to the advantage of the engineer. The formation of oxides on stainless steels, for example, can provide a protective layer preventing further atmospheric attack, allowing for a material to be used for sustained periods at both room and high temperatures in hostile conditions.
Such high-temperature corrosion products, in the form of compacted oxide layer glazes , prevent or reduce wear during high-temperature sliding contact of metallic or metallic and ceramic surfaces. Thermal oxidation is also commonly used as a route towards the obtainment of controlled oxide nanostructures, including nanowires and thin films.
Microbial corrosion , or commonly known as microbiologically influenced corrosion MIC , is a corrosion caused or promoted by microorganisms , usually chemoautotrophs. It can apply to both metallic and non-metallic materials, in the presence or absence of oxygen. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are active in the absence of oxygen anaerobic ; they produce hydrogen sulfide , causing sulfide stress cracking.
In the presence of oxygen aerobic , some bacteria may directly oxidize iron to iron oxides and hydroxides, other bacteria oxidize sulfur and produce sulfuric acid causing biogenic sulfide corrosion.
Concentration cells can form in the deposits of corrosion products, leading to localized corrosion.
We apologize for the inconvenience...
Copy the HTML code below to embed this book in your own blog, website, or application. An uncorrected copy, or prepublication, is an uncorrected proof of the book. We publish prepublications to facilitate timely access to the committee's findings. The final version of this book has not been published yet. You can pre-order a copy of the book and we will send it to you when it becomes available.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Various types of coatings, includ- ing painting, galvanizing, and metalizing, are discussed along with other methods of corrosion prevention that include the use of steels with higher resistance to corrosion, such as weathering steel. Figure 6. The focus of this chapter is on superstructure elements; however, much of the discussion is also applicable to deck and substructure elements.
Corrosion Prevention and Control: A Program Management Guide for Selecting Materials. September, iii. The information and data contained herein have.
What is Corrosion? - Definition and Prevention
Weeter, Robert F. Corrosion control planning should begin before any well is drilled. The means of controlling corrosion in oil and gas wells are outlined in some detail in this paper. Primary cause of corrosion of metals is contact of metal with corrosive gases in well fluids in the presence of liquid water. Corrosion can be controlled by removing the contact, the corrosive gases or the water.
Corrosion management and prevention is a critical factor in many industrial settings. Left untreated, corrosion can put infrastructure, safety and business performance at risk — with potentially devastating consequences. On the upside, design engineers have more tools available to them than ever before. Improved insights into types and causes of corrosion, advances in materials and best-practice guidance all help engineering professionals to prevent and reduce metallic degradation. The information in this post summarises a recent Parker white paper on combating corrosion.
See the DoD Instruction
Some aspects of corrosion research
Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide , hydroxide , or sulfide. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and preventing corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulfates. Rusting , the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide s or salt s of the original metal and results in a distinctive orange colouration. Corrosion can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers , although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common. Corrosion degrades the useful properties of materials and structures including strength, appearance and permeability to liquids and gases.
Вы ошибаетесь, сэр! - вскричал Чатрукьян. - И если он проникнет в главную базу данных… - Что еще за файл, черт возьми. Покажите мне .
Каждый бит информации АНБ станет общественным достоянием. Фонтейн внимательно изучал ВР, глаза его горели. Бринкерхофф слабо вскрикнул: - Этот червь откроет наш банк данных всему миру. - Для Танкадо это детская забава, - бросил Джабба. - Нашим главным стражем была система Сквозь строй, а Стратмор вышвырнул ее в мусорную корзину.
Один гудок… два… три… Внезапно он увидел нечто, заставившее его бросить трубку. Беккер повернулся и еще раз оглядел больничную палату. В ней царила полная тишина.
Лицо у Смита было растерянным. - Сэр, мы до сих пор не имеем понятия, что это за предмет. Нам нужны указания. ГЛАВА 114 - Обыщите их еще раз! - потребовал директор.
Ему захотелось увидеть ее глаза, он надеялся найти в них избавление.