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- Difference Between Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids
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The interpretation of long wavelength geoid and plate motions on the basis of dynamic Earth models has usually been done assuming linear viscous rheologies in the mantle.
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A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not follow Newton's law of viscosity , i. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity can change when under force to either more liquid or more solid. Ketchup , for example, becomes runnier when shaken and is thus a non-Newtonian fluid. Many salt solutions and molten polymers are non-Newtonian fluids, as are many commonly found substances such as custard ,  honey ,  toothpaste , starch suspensions, corn starch , paint , blood , melted butter , and shampoo.
Most commonly, the viscosity the gradual deformation by shear or tensile stresses of non-Newtonian fluids is dependent on shear rate or shear rate history.
Some non-Newtonian fluids with shear-independent viscosity, however, still exhibit normal stress-differences or other non-Newtonian behavior. In a Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is linear, passing through the origin , the constant of proportionality being the coefficient of viscosity.
In a non-Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is different. The fluid can even exhibit time-dependent viscosity. Therefore, a constant coefficient of viscosity cannot be defined. Although the concept of viscosity is commonly used in fluid mechanics to characterize the shear properties of a fluid, it can be inadequate to describe non-Newtonian fluids.
They are best studied through several other rheological properties that relate stress and strain rate tensors under many different flow conditions—such as oscillatory shear or extensional flow—which are measured using different devices or rheometers.
The properties are better studied using tensor -valued constitutive equations , which are common in the field of continuum mechanics. The viscosity of a shear thickening fluid , or dilatant fluid, appears to increase when the shear rate increases. Corn starch suspended in water "oobleck", see below is a common example: when stirred slowly it looks milky, when stirred vigorously it feels like a very viscous liquid.
A familiar example of the opposite, a shear thinning fluid , or pseudoplastic fluid, is wall paint : The paint should flow readily off the brush when it is being applied to a surface but not drip excessively.
Note that all thixotropic fluids are extremely shear thinning, but they are significantly time dependent, whereas the colloidal "shear thinning" fluids respond instantaneously to changes in shear rate. Thus, to avoid confusion, the latter classification is more clearly termed pseudoplastic. Another example of a shear thinning fluid is blood. This application is highly favoured within the body, as it allows the viscosity of blood to decrease with increased shear strain rate.
Several examples are clay suspensions, drilling mud, toothpaste, mayonnaise, chocolate, and mustard. The surface of a Bingham plastic can hold peaks when it is still. By contrast Newtonian fluids have flat featureless surfaces when still. There are also fluids whose strain rate is a function of time.
Fluids that require a gradually increasing shear stress to maintain a constant strain rate are referred to as rheopectic. An opposite case of this is a fluid that thins out with time and requires a decreasing stress to maintain a constant strain rate thixotropic. Many common substances exhibit non-Newtonian flows. These include: . An inexpensive, non-toxic example of a non-Newtonian fluid is a suspension of starch e. Seuss book Bartholomew and the Oobleck. Because of its properties, oobleck is often used in demonstrations that exhibit its unusual behavior.
A person may walk on a large tub of oobleck without sinking due to its shear thickening properties, as long as the individual moves quickly enough to provide enough force with each step to cause the thickening.
Also, if oobleck is placed on a large subwoofer driven at a sufficiently high volume, it will thicken and form standing waves in response to low frequency sound waves from the speaker. If a person were to punch or hit oobleck, it would thicken and act like a solid. After the blow, the oobleck will go back to its thin liquid-like state. Flubber, also commonly known as slime, is a non-Newtonian fluid, easily made from polyvinyl alcohol —based glues such as white "school" glue and borax.
It flows under low stresses but breaks under higher stresses and pressures. This combination of fluid-like and solid-like properties makes it a Maxwell fluid. Its behaviour can also be described as being viscoplastic or gelatinous. Another example of this is chilled caramel ice cream topping so long as it incorporates hydrocolloids such as carrageenan and gellan gum. The sudden application of force —by stabbing the surface with a finger, for example, or rapidly inverting the container holding it—causes the fluid to behave like a solid rather than a liquid.
This is the " shear thickening " property of this non-Newtonian fluid. More gentle treatment, such as slowly inserting a spoon, will leave it in its liquid state. Trying to jerk the spoon back out again, however, will trigger the return of the temporary solid state. Silly Putty is a silicone polymer based suspension which will flow, bounce, or break depending on strain rate. Plant resin is a viscoelastic solid polymer. When left in a container, it will flow slowly as a liquid to conform to the contours of its container.
If struck with greater force, however, it will shatter as a solid. Quicksand is a shear thinning non-Newtonian colloid that gains viscosity at rest. Quicksand's non-Newtonian properties can be observed when it experiences a slight shock for example, when someone walks on it or agitates it with a stick , shifting between its Gel and Sol phase and seemingly liquefying, causing objects on the surface of the quicksand to sink.
Ketchup is a shear thinning fluid. In other words, fluid motion is initially difficult at slow rates of deformation, but will flow more freely at high rates. Shaking an inverted bottle of ketchup can cause it to transition to a lower viscosity, resulting in a sudden gush of the shear thinned condiment.
Such continuum models tend to be non-Newtonian, since the apparent viscosity of granular flows increases with pressure and decreases with shear rate. The main difference is the shearing stress and rate of shear. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fluid that does not follow Newton's Law of Viscosity.
Solid mechanics. Fluid mechanics. Surface tension Capillary action. Main article: Flubber material. Main article: Silly Putty. Main article: Pitch resin. Main article: Quicksand. Scientific American. Springer handbook of experimental fluid mechanics. Prentice Hall. Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: Fundamentals and Applications.
Wiley VCH. Iowa State University Extension. The Rheology of Caramel PhD. University of Nottingham. Chemistry World. Royal Society of Chemistry.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Laws Conservations Mass Momentum Energy. Clausius—Duhem entropy. Rheology Viscoelasticity Rheometry Rheometer. Electrorheological Magnetorheological Ferrofluids. Kelvin material , Maxwell material. Some lubricants , whipped cream , Silly Putty.
Time-dependent viscosity. Apparent viscosity increases with duration of stress. Synovial fluid , printer ink , gypsum paste. Apparent viscosity decreases with duration of stress . Yogurt , peanut butter , xanthan gum solutions, aqueous iron oxide gels, gelatin gels, pectin gels, hydrogenated castor oil , some clays including bentonite , and montmorillonite , carbon black suspension in molten tire rubber, some drilling muds , many paints , many floc suspensions, many colloidal suspensions.
Shear thickening dilatant. Apparent viscosity increases with increased stress . Suspensions of corn starch in water oobleck. Apparent viscosity decreases with increased stress  .
Difference Between Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids
Instead of changing viscosity according to temperature, they thicken or thin in response to the amount of force applied to them. The box accelerates at 1. A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not follow Newton's law of viscosity, i. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity can change when under force to either more liquid or more solid. The key difference between Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids is that Newtonian fluids have a constant viscosity, whereas non-Newtonian fluids have a variable viscosity. A fluid that departs from the classic linear newtonian relation between stress and shear rate.
have a constant viscosity that doesn't change, no matter the pressure being applied to the.
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Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid dynamics on removal efficiency of non-specifically bound proteins in SAW biosensors Abstract: Surface acoustic wave SAW devices are finding increasing use in medical diagnostic applications, such as detection of specific proteins in bodily fluids for detection of pathologies.
Successful characterization of viscosity is key in determining if a fluid is Newtonian or non-Newtonian. Each unique material has its own behavior when subjected to flow, deformation or stress. Depending on their viscosity behavior as a function of shear rate, stress, deformation history Some examples of Newtonian fluids include water, organic solvents, and honey.
A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not follow Newton's law of viscosity , i. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity can change when under force to either more liquid or more solid.
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