File Name: pert and cpm principles and applications .zip
- pert and cpm | principles and applications | third edition | l s srinath
- PERT and CPM Principles and Applications
- PERT and CPM: Techniques of Project Management (Advantages and Disadvantages)
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pert and cpm | principles and applications | third edition | l s srinath
PERT and CPM are techniques of project management useful in the basic managerial functions of planning, scheduling and control. These days the projects undertaken by business houses are very large and take a number of years before commercial production can start. They minimise production delays, interruptions and conflicts. These techniques are very helpful in coordinating various jobs of the total project and thereby expedite and achieve completion of project on time.
PERT is a sophisticated tool used in planning, schedu ling and controlling large projects consisting of a number of activities independent of one another and with uncertain completion times. It is commonly used in research and development projects. All these jobs or activities must be separately listed. It is important to identify and distinguish the various activities required for the completion of the project and list them separately. We must see which jobs have to be completed before others can be started.
Obviously, certain jobs will have to be done first. Many jobs may be done simultaneously and certain jobs will be dependent upon the successful completion of the earlier jobs. All these relationships between the various jobs have to be clearly laid down. It shows which job comes first and which next. It also shows the time required for completion of various jobs. This is known as the project graph or the arrow diagram. The three steps given above can be understood with the help of an example.
Suppose, we want to construct a project graph of the simple project of preparing a budget for a large manufacturing firm. The managing director of this company wants his operating budget for the next year prepared as soon as possible. To accomplish this project, the company salesmen must provide sales estimates in units for the period to the sales manager. The sales manager would consolidate this data and give it to the production manager. He would also estimate market prices of the sales and give the total value of sales schedules of the units to be produced and assign machines for their manufacture.
He would also plan the requirements of labour and other inputs and give all these schedules together with the number of units to be produced to the accounts manager who would provide cost of production data to the budget officer. Using the information provided by the sales, production and accounting departments, and the budget officer would make the necessary arrangements for internal financing and prepare the budget. We have seen that the project of preparing the budget involves a number of activities.
In this graph jobs are shown as arrows leading from one circle on the graph to another. Thus, the arrow connecting the two circles represents a job. Circle one and two represent job a i. Circles 2 and 4 represent job b which will take ten days and so on. It would be seen that job c is not dependent upon job b and therefore, the two jobs can be done simultaneously.
Once we reduce the project to network of activities and events and we estimate activity durations, we are in a position to determine the minimum time required for completion of the whole project.
To do so, we must find the longest path or sequence connecting the activities through the network. The longest path is the critical path. In our example, there are two paths. One is connecting circle numbers 1, 2, 4 and 5. Obviously the 2nd path is the critical path and the project of budget presentation will take this much of time.
The students will however notice that this time is shorter than the total time listed under Table 1 which will be 45 days. This is because jobs b and c can be done simultaneously. What we have basically described above is the very careful technique of CPM and PERT which consists of decomposing project into activities and then ordering activities according to their relationships to find out the shortest time required to carry on an activity.
This technique is very useful in case of projects which involve a large number of activities. It makes the project manager list out all the possible activities, their relationships, find out which activities can be performed first, which next and which can be performed simultaneously so as to find out the best possible manner of completing the project.
A good project network goes a long way in reducing costs. Many companies work out the cost estimate of each activity and show. It compels managers to plan their projects critically and analyse all factors affecting the progress of the plan. The process of the network analysis requires that the project planning be conducted on considerable detail from the start to the finish.
It provides the management a tool for forecasting the impact of schedule changes and be prepared to correct such situations. The likely trouble spots are located early enough so as to apply some preventive measures or corrective actions. The task relationships are graphically represented for easier evaluation and individuals in different locations can easily determine their role in the total task requirements. The PERT time Te is based upon 3-way estimate and hence is the most objective time in the light of uncertainties and results in greater degree of accuracy in time forecasting.
It results in improved communication; the network provides a common ground for various parties such as designers, contractors, project managers etc. The network will highlight areas that require attention of higher priority so that concentration can be applied to the key jobs without ignoring the lower priority tasks. This gives the management an opportunity to shift attention to any critical task so that the entire project is completed in time. Uncertainly about the estimate of time and resources.
These must be assumed and the results can only be as good as the assumptions. The costs may be higher than the conventional methods of planning and control. Because of the nature of net working and net work analysis, it needs a high degree of planning skill and greater amount of details which would increase the cost in time and manpower resources,.
It is not suitable for relatively simple and repetitive processes such as assembly line work which are fixed-sequence jobs. Hence PERT is not very effective in manufacturing operations, since it deals in the time domain only and does not deal with the quality information which is necessary in manufacturing processes. You must be logged in to post a comment. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
PERT and CPM Principles and Applications
Project management can be understood as a systematic way of planning, scheduling, executing, monitoring, controlling the different aspects of the project, so as to attain the goal made at the time of project formulation. PERT and CPM are the two network-based project management techniques, which exhibit the flow and sequence of the activities and events. Program Project Management and Review Technique PERT is appropriate for the projects where the time needed to complete different activities are not known. The two scheduling methods use a common approach for designing the network and for ascertaining its critical path. They are used in the successful completion of a project and hence used in conjunction with each other. Nevertheless, the truth is that CPM is different from PERT in a way that the latter concentrates on time while the former stresses on the time-cost trade-off.
PERT and CPM: Techniques of Project Management (Advantages and Disadvantages)
PERT is majorly applied for scheduling, organization and integration of different tasks within a project. It provides the blueprint of project and is efficient technique for project evaluation. It is majorly used for determining the approximate time within which a project can be completed. Critical path is the largest path in project management which always provide minimum time taken for completion of project. Attention reader!
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