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Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions. Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance. A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image L adp and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display L s.
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Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions. Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance.
A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image L adp and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display L s. Although ambient lighting in reading rooms has conventionally been kept at a minimum to maintain the perceived contrast of film images, proper Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine DICOM calibration of modern medical-grade liquid crystal displays can compensate for minor lighting increases with very little loss of image contrast.
This paper describes two psychophysical studies developed to evaluate and refine optimum reading room ambient lighting conditions through the use of observational tasks intended to simulate real clinical practices. The first study utilized the biologic contrast response of the human visual system to determine a range of representative L adp values for typical medical images. The images were displayed under a dark room condition 1 lux and an increased ambient lighting level 50 lux such that the luminance level of the diffusely reflected light from the background wall was approximately equal to the image L adp value of.
Object permanence in young infants: further evidence. Recent evidence suggests that 4. The goal of the present experiments was to obtain converging evidence of object permanence in young infants. Experiments were conducted using paradigms previously used to demonstrate object permanence in 5. In one experiment, 3. The track's center was hidden by a screen with a large window in its upper half. The short carrot was shorter than the window's lower edge and so did not appear in the window when passing behind the screen; the tall carrot was taller than the window's lower edge and hence should have appeared in the window but did not.
The infants looked reliably longer at the tall than at the short carrot event, suggesting that they a represented the existence, height, and trajectory of each carrot behind the screen and b expected the tall carrot to appear in the screen window and were surprised that it did not.
Control trials supported this interpretation. In another experiment, 4. A large toy mouse was placed behind the screen, either on top or in back of the track. The female infants looked reliably longer when the mouse stood on top as opposed to in back of the track, suggesting that they a represented the existence and trajectory of the car behind the screen, b represented the existence and location of the mouse behind the screen, and c were surprised to see the car reappear from behind the screen when the mouse stood in its path.
A second experiment supported this interpretation. The results of these experiments provide further evidence that infants aged 3. Object perception requires interpolation processes that connect visible regions despite spatial gaps.
Some research has suggested that interpolation may be a 3-D process, but objective performance data and evidence about the conditions leading to interpolation are needed.
The authors developed an objective performance paradigm for testing 3-D…. Evidence against a speed limit in multiple- object tracking. Everyday tasks often require us to keep track of multiple objects in dynamic scenes.
Past studies show that tracking becomes more difficult as objects move faster. In the present study, we show that this trade-off may not be due to increased speed itself but may, instead, be due to the increased crowding that usually accompanies increases in speed. Here, we isolate changes in speed from variations in crowding, by projecting a tracking display either onto a small area at the center of a hemispheric projection dome or onto the entire dome. Use of the larger display increased retinal image size and object speed by a factor of 4 but did not increase interobject crowding.
Results showed that tracking accuracy was equally good in the large-display condition, even when the objects traveled far into the visual periphery. Accuracy was also not reduced when we tested object speeds that limited performance in the small-display condition.
These results, along with a reinterpretation of past studies, suggest that we might be able to track multiple moving objects as fast as we can a single moving object , once the effect of object crowding is eliminated.
The authors developed an objective performance paradigm for testing 3-D interpolation and tested a new theory of 3-D contour interpolation, termed 3-D relatability. The theory indicates for a given edge which orientations and positions of other edges in space may be connected to it by interpolation. Results of 5 experiments showed that processing of orientation relations in 3-D relatable displays was superior to processing in 3-D nonrelatable displays and that these effects depended on object formation.
Electrophysiological evidence for effects of color knowledge in object recognition. Knowledge about the typical colors associated with familiar everyday objects i.
Evidence that such knowledge may also play a role in early perceptual processes for object recognition is scant. In the present ERP study, participants viewed a list of object pictures and detected infrequent stimulus repetitions. Results show that shortly after stimulus onset, ERP components indexing early perceptual processes, including N1, P2, and N2, differentiated between objects in their appropriate or congruent color from these objects in an inappropriate or incongruent color.
Such congruence effect also occurred in N3 associated with semantic processing of pictures but not in N4 for domain-general semantic processing. Our results demonstrate a clear effect of color knowledge in early object recognition stages and support the following proposal-color as a surface property is stored in a multiple-memory system where pre-semantic perceptual and semantic conceptual representations interact during object recognition.
All rights reserved. General object recognition is specific: Evidence from novel and familiar objects. In tests of object recognition, individual differences typically correlate modestly but nontrivially across familiar categories e.
In theory, these correlations could reflect either global, non-specific mechanisms, such as general intelligence IQ , or more specific mechanisms. Here, we introduce two separate methods for effectively capturing category-general performance variation, one that uses novel objects and one that uses familiar objects.
In each case, we show that category-general performance variance is unrelated to IQ, thereby implicating more specific mechanisms. The first approach examines three newly developed novel object memory tests NOMTs. We predicted that NOMTs would exhibit more shared, category-general variance than familiar object memory tests FOMTs because novel objects , unlike familiar objects , lack category-specific environmental influences e.
This prediction held, and remarkably, virtually none of the substantial shared variance among NOMTs was explained by IQ. Also, while NOMTs correlated nontrivially with two FOMTs faces, cars , these correlations were smaller than among NOMTs and no larger than between the face and car tests themselves, suggesting that the category-general variance captured by NOMTs is specific not only relative to IQ, but also, to some degree, relative to both face and car recognition.
The second approach averaged performance across multiple FOMTs, which we predicted would increase category-general variance by averaging out category-specific factors. Overall, these results support the existence of object recognition mechanisms that, though category-general, are specific relative to IQ and substantially separable from face and car recognition.
They also add sensitive, well-normed NOMTs to the tools available to study. PubMed Central. During visual search, people are distracted by objects that visually resemble search targets; search is impaired when targets and distractors share overlapping features. In this study, we examined whether a nonvisual form of similarity, overlapping object names, can also affect search performance. In three experiments, people searched for images of real-world objects e. Participants either searched for one or three potential targets per trial, with search targets designated either visually or verbally.
We examined standard visual search Experiments 1 and 3 and a self-paced serial search task wherein participants manually rejected each distractor Experiment 2. We hypothesized that people would maintain visual templates when searching for single targets, but would rely more on object names when searching for multiple items and when targets were verbally cued. This reliance on target names would make performance susceptible to interference from similar-sounding distractors.
Experiments 1 and 2 showed the predicted interference effect in conditions with high memory load and verbal cues. In Experiment 3, eye-movement results showed that phonological interference resulted from small increases in dwell time to all distractors. The results suggest that distractor names are implicitly activated during search, slowing attention disengagement when targets and distractors share similar names. Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing.
Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…. Visual adaptation provides objective electrophysiological evidence of facial identity discrimination. Discrimination of facial identities is a fundamental function of the human brain that is challenging to examine with macroscopic measurements of neural activity, such as those obtained with functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and electroencephalography EEG.
Although visual adaptation or repetition suppression RS stimulation paradigms have been successfully implemented to this end with such recording techniques, objective evidence of an identity-specific discrimination response due to adaptation at the level of the visual representation is lacking. Subsequently, this identity is presented in alternation with another facial identity i.
These results indicate that visual adaptation to a given facial identity produces an objective i. Object formation in visual working memory: Evidence from object -based attention. We report on how visual working memory VWM forms intact perceptual representations of visual objects using sub- object elements. Specifically, when objects were divided into fragments and sequentially encoded into VWM, the fragments were involuntarily integrated into objects in VWM, as evidenced by the occurrence of both positive and negative object -based attention effects: In Experiment 1, when subjects' attention was cued to a location occupied by the VWM object , the target presented at the location of that object was perceived as occurring earlier than that presented at the location of a different object.
In Experiment 2, responses to a target were significantly slower when a distractor was presented at the same location as the cued object Experiment 2. These results suggest that object fragments can be integrated into objects within VWM in a manner similar to that of visual perception.
A briefly presented target can be rendered invisible by a lingering sparse mask that does not even touch it. This form of visual backward masking, called object substitution masking, is thought to occur at the object level of processing.
However, it remains unclear whether object -level interference alone produces substitution masking because…. Object representations in visual memory: evidence from visual illusions. Human visual memory is considered to contain different levels of object representations. Representations in visual working memory VWM are thought to contain relatively elaborated information about object structure. Conversely, representations in iconic memory are thought to be more perceptual in nature.
In four experiments, we tested the effects of two different categories of visual illusions on representations in VWM and in iconic memory. Unlike VWM that was affected by both types of illusions, iconic memory was immune to the effects of within- object contextual illusions and was affected only by illusions driven by between- objects contextual properties. These results show that iconic and visual working memory contain dissociable representations of object shape.
These findings suggest that the global properties of the visual scene are processed prior to the processing of specific elements. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.
The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity VPA is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity MPA.
Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's ACSM vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy.
VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern.
Autism Research , 8 6 pp. Ab-Murat, N ; Sheiham, A ; Watt, R ; Tsakos, G ; Treatment needs and skill mix workforce requirements for prosthodontic care: a comparison of estimates using normative and sociodental approaches. Brain , 6 pp. Cilia , 4 Suppl. Dis Model Mech , 8 6 - Nature Physics , 11 4 pp. Abdulwahhab, NA ; Transport of cold atoms in laser fields.
SlideSort: all pairs similarity search for short reads. PubMed Central. Motivation: Recent progress in DNA sequencing technologies calls for fast and accurate algorithms that can evaluate sequence similarity for a huge amount of short reads. Searching similar pairs from a string pool is a fundamental process of de novo genome assembly, genome-wide alignment and other important analyses. Results: In this study, we designed and implemented an exact algorithm SlideSort that finds all similar pairs from a string pool in terms of edit distance. Using an efficient pattern growth algorithm, SlideSort discovers chains of common k-mers to narrow down the search. Compared to existing methods based on single k-mers, our method is more effective in reducing the number of edit distance calculations.
Do virtual museums really provide added value to end-users, or do they just contribute to the abundance of images? Does the World Wide Web save endangered cultural heritage, or does it foster a society with less variety? How can information technology help to preserve the diversity of cultures in our fast-changing world? These are the questions that are raised and answered in this book, the result of a long path across the digital heritage landscape. Alfredo M.
Queen of the Stone Age is the brainchild of guitarist, singer, songwriter and producer Josh Homme. Few bands have left such a lasting impression on the rock idiom since the 90s as Queens of the Stone Age, and it could be argued a lot of that is down to this man and the musicians and producers he surrounds himself with. His style is DIY and idiosyncratic yet uncomplicated and well honed.
Marketing and Communications Manager, Bluebell Railway A grant from the Culture Recovery Fund for Heritage to the Bluebell Railway has enabled us to create virtual tours of our stations, locomotive shed and museum. This project is ongoing with more tours coming soon, including Kingscote Station, booking office and signal box! The funding covers online Support Worker salaries and training costs to extend hours for the online support service. We received well over responses to the consultation, and I was really pleased to note the wide range of organisations and individuals represented. Commissioner for Cultural Recovery and Renewal When we visit a gallery or a local museum, attend a concert or dance performance, visit a Neolithic site or take a ride on a steam railway we experience cultural nourishment and joy. We experience this communally, with our families and friends.
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